الثلاثاء، 13 أكتوبر، 2009

Malcolm X


Malcolm X
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Malcolm X

Malcolm X, March 1964
Alternate name(s): Malcolm Little, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz
Date of birth: May 19, 1925(1925-05-19)
Place of birth: Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
Date of death: February 21, 1965 (aged 39)
Place of death: New York City, New York, U.S.
Movement: Black nationalism, Pan-Africanism
Major organizations: Nation of Islam,
Muslim Mosque, Inc.,
Organization of Afro-American Unity
Religion: Sunni Islam
Influences Elijah Muhammad,
Marcus Garvey
Malcolm X (pronounced /ˈmælkəm ˈɛks/) (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz[1] (Arabic: الحاجّ مالك الشباز‎), was an African-American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist.[2][3][4][5] To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans.[6] His detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, and violence.[7][8][9][10] He has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.[11][12][13]

Malcolm X was born in Omaha, Nebraska. By the time he was 13, his father had been murdered and his mother had been committed to a mental hospital. His childhood, including his father's lessons concerning black pride and self-reliance and his own experiences concerning race, played a significant role in Malcolm X's adult life. After living in a series of foster homes, Malcolm X became involved in hustling and other criminal activities in Boston and New York. In 1945, Malcolm X was sentenced to eight to ten years in prison.

While in prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam. After his parole in 1952, he became one of the Nation's leaders and chief spokesmen. For nearly a dozen years, he was the public face of the Nation of Islam. Tension between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad, head of the Nation of Islam, led to Malcolm X's departure from the organization in March 1964.

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X became a Sunni Muslim and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, after which he disavowed racism in all its forms. He traveled extensively throughout Africa and the Middle East. He founded Muslim Mosque, Inc., a religious organization, and the secular, black nationalist Organization of Afro-American Unity. Less than a year after he left the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X was assassinated while giving a speech in New York.

Contents [hide]
1 Early years
2 Young adult years
3 Nation of Islam
4 Marriage and family
5 Meeting Castro and other world leaders
6 Leaving the Nation of Islam
7 International travel
7.1 Pilgrimage to Mecca
7.2 Africa
7.3 France and the United Kingdom
8 In the United States
9 Death
9.1 Assassination
9.2 Funeral
9.3 Responses to assassination
9.4 Allegations of conspiracy
10 Philosophy
10.1 Beliefs of the Nation of Islam
10.2 Independent views
11 Legacy
11.1 Portrayals in film and on stage
11.2 Memorials and tributes
12 See also
13 Published works
14 Notes
15 References
16 Further reading
17 External links


[edit] Early years

Malcolm Little and siblings in the 1930 US CensusMalcolm Little was born on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, to Earl and Louise Little (née Louisa Norton).[14] His father was an outspoken Baptist lay speaker; he supported Pan-African activist Marcus Garvey and was a local leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).[15] Malcolm never forgot the values of black pride and self-reliance that his father and other UNIA leaders preached.[16] Malcolm X later said that three of Earl Little's brothers, one of whom was lynched, died violently at the hands of white men.[17] Because of Ku Klux Klan threats, the family relocated in 1926 to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and shortly thereafter to Lansing, Michigan.


Marcus Garvey, founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). Earl Little was a local leader of the UNIA.Earl Little was dark-skinned and born in Georgia.[18] Earl's second wife was Louise, with whom he had seven children, of whom Malcolm was the fourth. Earl and Louise Little's children's names were, in order: Wilfred, Hilda, Philbert, Malcolm, Reginald, Yvonne, and Wesley. He had three children (Ella, Mary, and Earl, Jr.) from his first marriage.[19]

Louise Little had been born in Grenada. Her father was Scottish and she was so light-skinned that she could have passed for white. Malcolm inherited his light complexion from his mother and grandfather.[20] Initially he felt his light skin was a status symbol, but he later said he "hated every drop of that white rapist's blood that is in me."[21] Malcolm X later remembered feeling that his father favored him because he was the lightest child in the family; however, he thought his mother treated him harshly for the same reason.[22] One of Malcolm's nicknames, "Red", derived from the tinge of his hair. According to one biographer, at birth he had "ash-blonde hair ... tinged with cinnamon", and at four, "reddish-blonde hair".[23] His hair darkened as he aged, but he also resembled his paternal grandmother, whose hair "turned reddish in the summer sun."[14] The issue of skin color and skin tone took on very significant implications later in Malcolm's life.[18]

In December 1924, Louise Little was threatened by Klansmen while she was pregnant with Malcolm. She recalled that the Klansmen warned the family to leave Omaha, because Earl Little's activities with UNIA were "spreading trouble".[24]

After they moved to Lansing, their house was burned in 1929, but the family escaped without physical injury. On September 28, 1931, Earl Little was run over by a streetcar in Lansing and died. Authorities ruled his death an accident. The police reported that Earl Little was conscious when they arrived on the scene, and he told them he had slipped and fallen under the streetcar's wheels.[25] Malcolm X later remembered that the black community disputed the cause of death, believing there was circumstantial evidence of assault. His family had frequently been harassed by the Black Legion, a white supremacist group that his father accused of burning down their home in 1929. Some blacks believed the Black Legion killed Earl Little. As Malcolm later wrote, "How could my father bash himself in the head, then get down across the streetcar tracks to be run over?"[26]

Though Earl Little had two life insurance policies, his family received death benefits solely from the smaller policy. The insurance company of the larger policy claimed that his father had committed suicide and refused to issue the benefit.[27] Several years after her husband's death, Louise had her youngest son, Robert Little, by an unnamed partner.[28] In December 1938 Louise Little had a nervous breakdown and was declared legally insane. The Little siblings were split up and sent to different foster homes. The state formally committed Louise Little to the state mental hospital at Kalamazoo, Michigan, where she remained until Malcolm and his siblings secured her release 26 years later.[29]

Malcolm Little was one of the best students in his junior high school, but he dropped out after a white eighth-grade teacher told him that his aspirations of being a lawyer were "no realistic goal for a nigger."[30] Years later, Malcolm X would laugh about the incident, but at the time it was humiliating. It made him feel that there was no place in the white world for a career-oriented black man, no matter how smart he was.[30] After enduring a series of white foster parents, Malcolm moved to Boston in February 1941 to live with his older half-sister, Ella Little Collins.[31][32]

[edit] Young adult years
Collins lived in Roxbury, a predominantly African-American middle-class neighborhood of Boston. It was the first time Little had seen so many black people. He was drawn to the cultural and social life of the neighborhood.[33]

In Boston, Little held a variety of jobs and found intermittent employment with the New Haven Railroad. Between 1943 and 1946, Little drifted from city to city and job to job. He left Boston to live for a short time in Flint, Michigan. He moved to New York City in 1943. Living in Harlem, he became involved in drug dealing, gambling, racketeering, robbery, and steering prostitutes.[34]

In 1943, the U.S. draft board ordered Little to register for military service. [35] He later recalled that he put on a display to avoid the draft by telling the examining officer that he could not wait to "steal us some guns, and kill us [some] crackers."[36] Military physicians classified him as "mentally disqualified for military service". He was issued a 4-F card, relieving him of his service obligations.[35]

In late 1945, Little returned to Boston. With a group of associates, he began a series of elaborate burglaries targeting the residences of wealthy white families.[37] On January 12, 1946, Little was arrested for burglary while trying to pick up a stolen watch he had left for repairs at a jewelry shop.[38] The shop owner called the police because the watch seemed too expensive for the average Roxbury resident. Little told the police that he had a gun on his person and surrendered so the police would treat him more leniently.[39] Two days later, Little was indicted for carrying firearms. On January 16, he was charged with larceny and breaking and entering, and eventually sentenced to eight to ten years in Massachusetts State Prison.[40]

On February 27, Little began serving his sentence at the Massachusetts State Prison in Charlestown. While in prison, Little earned the nickname of "Satan" for his hostility toward religion.[41] Little met a self-educated man in prison named John Elton Bembry (referred to as "Bimbi" in The Autobiography of Malcolm X).[42] Bembry was a well-regarded prisoner at Charlestown, and Malcolm X would later describe him as "the first man I had ever seen command total respect ... with words."[43] Gradually, the two men became friends and Bembry convinced Little to educate himself.[44] Little developed a voracious appetite for reading, and he frequently read after the prison lights had been turned off.[45]

In 1948, Little's brother Philbert wrote, telling him about the Nation of Islam. Like the UNIA, the Nation preached black self-reliance and, ultimately, the unification of members of the African diaspora, free from white American and European domination.[46] Little was not interested in joining until his brother Reginald wrote, saying, "Malcolm, don't eat any more pork and don't smoke any more cigarettes. I'll show you how to get out of prison."[47] Little quit smoking, and the next time pork was served in the prison dining hall, he refused to eat it.[48]

When Reginald came to visit Little, he described the group's teachings, including the belief that white people are devils. Afterward, Little thought about all the white people he had known, and he realized that he'd never had a relationship with a white person or social institution that wasn't based on dishonesty, injustice, greed, and hatred. Little began to reconsider his dismissal of all religion and he became receptive to the message of the Nation of Islam. Other family members who had joined the Nation wrote or visited and encouraged Little to join.[49]

In February 1948, mostly through his sister's efforts, Little was transferred to an experimental prison in Norfolk, Massachusetts, a facility that had a much larger library.[50] In late 1948, he wrote a letter to Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad advised him to atone for his crimes by renouncing his past and by humbly bowing in prayer to Allah and promising never to engage in destructive behavior again. Little, who always had been rebellious and deeply skeptical, found it very difficult to bow in prayer. It took him a week to bend his knees. Finally he prayed, and he became a member of the Nation of Islam.[51] For the remainder of his incarceration, Little maintained regular correspondence with Muhammad.[52]

On August 7, 1952, Little was paroled and was released from prison.[40] He later reflected on the time he spent in prison after his conversion: "Months passed without my even thinking about being imprisoned. In fact, up to then, I had never been so truly free in my life."[53]

[edit] Nation of Islam
Part of a series on

Nation of Islam






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Famous leaders
Wallace Fard Muhammad · Elijah Muhammad · Malcolm X · Warith Deen Mohammed · Louis Farrakhan


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History and beliefs
Saviours' Day · Nation of Islam and antisemitism · Tribe of Shabazz · Yakub · Million Man March


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Publications
The Final Call · How to Eat to Live · Message to the Blackman in America · Muhammad Speaks


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Subsidiaries and offshoots
American Society of Muslims · Fruit of Islam · The Nation of Gods and Earths · New Black Panther Party · United Nation of Islam · Your Black Muslim Bakery

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Further information: Nation of Islam
In 1952, after his release from prison, Little visited Elijah Muhammad in Chicago, Illinois.[54] Then, like many members of the Nation of Islam, he changed his surname to "X". In his autobiography, Malcolm X explained the "X": "The Muslim's 'X' symbolized the true African family name that he never could know. For me, my 'X' replaced the white slavemaster name of 'Little' which some blue-eyed devil named Little had imposed upon my paternal forebears."[55]

The FBI opened a file on Malcolm X in March 1953 after hearing from an informant that Malcolm X described himself as a Communist. Soon the FBI turned its attention from concerns about possible Communist Party association to Malcolm X's rapid ascent in the Nation of Islam.[56]

In June 1953, Malcolm X was named assistant minister of the Nation of Islam's Temple Number One[57] in Detroit.[58] By late 1953, he established Boston's Temple Number Eleven.[59] In March 1954, Malcolm X expanded Temple Number Twelve in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[60] Two months later he was selected to lead the Nation of Islam's Temple Number Seven in Harlem.[61] He rapidly expanded its membership.[62] After a 1959 television broadcast in New York City about the Nation of Islam, The Hate That Hate Produced, Malcolm X became known to a much wider audience. Representatives of the print media, radio, and television frequently asked him for comments on issues. He was also sought as a spokesman by reporters from other countries.[63]

From his adoption of the Nation of Islam in 1952 until he left the organization in 1964, Malcolm X promoted the Nation's teachings. He taught that black people were the original people of the world,[64] and that white people were a race of devils.[65] In his speeches, Malcolm X said that black people were superior to white people, and that the demise of the white race was imminent.[66]

While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from white people. He proposed the establishment of a separate country for black people[67] as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa.[68] Malcolm X also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence and instead advocated that black people use any necessary means of self-defense to protect themselves.[69]

Malcolm X's speeches had a powerful effect on his audiences, generally African Americans who lived in the Northern and Western cities who were tired of being told to wait for freedom, justice, equality, and respect.[70] Many blacks felt that he articulated their complaints better than the civil rights movement did.[71]

Many white people, and some blacks, were alarmed by Malcolm X and the things he said. He and the Nation of Islam were described as hatemongers, black segregationists, violence-seekers, and a threat to improved race relations. Civil rights organizations denounced Malcolm X and the Nation as irresponsible extremists whose views were not representative of African Americans.[72]

Malcolm X was equally critical of the civil rights movement.[73] He described its leaders as "stooges" for the white establishment and said that Martin Luther King, Jr. was a "chump".[74][75] He criticized the 1963 March on Washington, which he called "the farce on Washington".[76] He said he did not know why black people were excited over a demonstration "run by whites in front of a statue of a president who has been dead for a hundred years and who didn't like us when he was alive".[77]

Malcolm X has been widely considered the second most influential leader of the movement after Elijah Muhammad.[78] He was largely credited with increasing membership in the Nation of Islam from 500 in 1952 to 25,000 in 1963.[79][80] He inspired the boxer Cassius Clay (later known as Muhammad Ali) to join the Nation of Islam.[81] Ali later left the Nation of Islam and became a Sunni Muslim, as did Malcolm X.[82]

[edit] Marriage and family
On January 14, 1958, Malcolm X married Betty X (née Sanders) in Lansing, Michigan.[83] The two had been friends for about a year and—although they had never discussed the subject—Betty X suspected that he was interested in marriage. One day, he called and asked her to marry him.[84]

The couple had six daughters. Their names were Attallah, born in 1958 and named after Attila the Hun;[85] Qubilah, born in 1960 and named after Kublai Khan;[86] Ilyasah, born in 1962 and named after Elijah Muhammad;[87] Gamilah Lumumba, born in 1964 and named after Patrice Lumumba;[88] and twins, Malaak and Malikah, born in 1965 after their father's assassination and named for him.[89]

[edit] Meeting Castro and other world leaders
In September 1960, Fidel Castro arrived in New York to attend the meeting of the United Nations General Assembly. He and his entourage stayed at the Hotel Theresa in Harlem. Malcolm X was a prominent member of a Harlem-based welcoming committee made up of community leaders who met with Castro.[90] Castro was so impressed by Malcolm X that he requested a private meeting with him.[91] During the General Assembly meeting, Malcolm X was also invited to many official embassy functions sponsored by African nations, where he met heads of state and other leaders, including Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Ahmed Sékou Touré of Guinea, and Kenneth Kaunda of the Zambian African National Congress.[92]

[edit] Leaving the Nation of Islam
In early 1963, Malcolm X started collaborating with Alex Haley on The Autobiography of Malcolm X.[93] The book was not finished when he was assassinated in 1965. Haley completed it and published it later that year.[94][95]

On December 1, 1963, when he was asked for a comment about the assassination of President Kennedy, Malcolm X said that it was a case of "chickens coming home to roost". He added that "chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad; they've always made me glad."[96] The New York Times wrote, "in further criticism of Mr. Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba, Congo leader, of Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church. These, he said, were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost'."[96]

The remarks prompted a widespread public outcry. The Nation of Islam, which had issued a message of condolence to the Kennedy family and ordered its ministers not to comment on the assassination, publicly censured their former shining star.[97] Although Malcolm X retained his post and rank as minister, he was prohibited from public speaking for 90 days.[98]


Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964On March 8, 1964, Malcolm X publicly announced his break from the Nation of Islam. He said that he was still a Muslim, but he felt the Nation of Islam had "gone as far as it can" because of its rigid religious teachings.[99] Malcolm X said he was going to organize a black nationalist organization that would try to "heighten the political consciousness" of African Americans.[99] He also expressed his desire to work with other civil rights leaders and said that Elijah Muhammad had prevented him from doing so in the past.[99]

One reason for the separation was growing tension between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad because of Malcolm X's dismay about rumors of Muhammad's extramarital affairs with young secretaries. Such actions were against the teachings of the Nation. Although at first Malcolm X ignored the rumors, he spoke with Muhammad's son and the women making the accusations. He came to believe that they were true, and Muhammad confirmed the rumors in 1963. Muhammad tried to justify his actions by referring to precedents by Biblical prophets.[100]

Another reason was resentment by people within the Nation. As Malcolm X had become a favorite of the media, and many in the Nation's Chicago headquarters felt that he was over-shadowing Muhammad. Louis Lomax's 1963 book about the Nation of Islam, When the Word Is Given, featured a picture of Malcolm X on its cover and included five of his speeches, but only one of Muhammad's, which greatly upset Muhammad. Muhammad was also envious that a publisher was interested in Malcolm X's autobiography.[93]

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X founded Muslim Mosque, Inc., a religious organization,[101][102] and the Organization of Afro-American Unity, a secular group that advocated black nationalism.[103][104] On March 26, 1964, he met Martin Luther King, Jr. in Washington, D.C., after a press conference which followed both men attending the Senate to hear the debate on the Civil Rights bill. This was the only time the two men ever met; their meeting lasted only one minute,[105] just long enough for photographers to take a picture.[106][107]

In April, Malcolm X made a speech titled "The Ballot or the Bullet" in which he advised African Americans to exercise their right to vote wisely.[108][109] Several Sunni Muslims encouraged Malcolm X to learn about Islam. Soon he converted to Sunni Islam, and decided to make his pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj).[110]

[edit] International travel
[edit] Pilgrimage to Mecca
On April 13, 1964, Malcolm X departed JFK Airport in New York for Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. His status as an authentic Muslim was questioned by Saudi authorities because of his United States passport and his inability to speak Arabic. Since only confessing Muslims are allowed into Mecca, he was separated from his group for about 20 hours.[111][112]

According to his autobiography, Malcolm X saw a telephone and remembered the book The Eternal Message of Muhammad by Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam, which had been presented to him with his visa approval. He called Azzam's son, who arranged for his release. At the younger Azzam's home, he met Azzam Pasha, who gave Malcolm his suite at the Jeddah Palace Hotel. The next morning, Muhammad Faisal, the son of Prince Faisal, visited and informed Malcolm X that he was to be a state guest. The deputy chief of protocol accompanied Malcolm X to the Hajj Court, where he was allowed to make his pilgrimage.[113]

On April 19, Malcolm X completed the Hajj, making the seven circuits around the Kaaba, drinking from the Zamzam Well and running between the hills of Safah and Marwah seven times.[114] Malcolm X said the trip allowed him to see Muslims of different races interacting as equals. He came to believe that Islam could be the means by which racial problems could be overcome.[115]

[edit] Africa

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Malcolm X
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C. L. R. James
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Malcolm X visited Africa on three separate occasions, once in 1959 and twice in 1964. During his visits, he met officials, gave interviews to newspapers, and spoke on television and radio in Egypt, Ethiopia, Tanganyika (now Tanzania), Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea, Sudan, Senegal, Liberia, Algeria, and Morocco.[116] Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, and Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria invited Malcolm X to serve in their governments.[117]

In 1959, Malcolm X traveled to Egypt (then known as the United Arab Republic), Sudan, Nigeria, and Ghana to arrange a tour for Elijah Muhammad.[118] The first of the two trips Malcolm X made to Africa in 1964 lasted from April 13 until May 21, before and after his Hajj.[119] On May 8, following his speech at the University of Ibadan, Malcolm X was made an honorary member of the Nigerian Muslim Students' Association. During this reception the students bestowed upon him the name "Omowale", which means "the son who has come home" in the Yoruba language.[120] Malcolm X wrote in his autobiography that he "had never received a more treasured honor."[121]

On July 9, 1964, Malcolm X returned to Africa.[122] On July 17, he was welcomed to the second meeting of the Organization of African Unity in Cairo as a representative of the Organization of Afro-American Unity. By the time he returned to the United States on November 24, 1964, Malcolm had met with every prominent African leader and established an international connection between Africans on the continent and those in the diaspora.[117]

[edit] France and the United Kingdom
On November 23, 1964, on his way home from Africa, Malcolm X stopped in Paris, where he spoke at the Salle de la Mutualité.[123][124] A week later, on November 30, Malcolm X flew to the United Kingdom, where he participated in a debate at the Oxford Union on December 3. The topic of the debate was "Extremism in the Defense of Liberty is No Vice; Moderation in the Pursuit of Justice is No Virtue", and Malcolm X argued the affirmative. Interest in the debate was so high that it was televised nationally by the BBC.[125][126]

On February 5, 1965, Malcolm X went to Europe again.[127] On February 8, he spoke in London, before the first meeting of the Council of African Organizations.[128] Malcolm X tried to go to France on February 9 but he was refused entry.[129] On February 12, he visited Smethwick, near Birmingham, which had become a byword for racial division after the 1964 general election, when the Conservative Party won the parliamentary seat after rumors that their candidate's supporters had used the slogan "If you want a nigger for your neighbour, vote Labour."[130]

[edit] In the United States
After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X spoke before a wide variety of audiences in the United States. He spoke at regular meetings of Muslim Mosque, Inc., and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He was one of the most sought-after speakers on college campuses,[131] and one of his top aides later wrote that he "welcomed every opportunity to speak to college students."[132] Malcolm X also spoke before political groups such as the Militant Labor Forum.[133]

Tensions increased between Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam. As early as February 1964, a member of Temple Number Seven was given orders by the Nation of Islam to wire explosives to Malcolm X's car.[134] On March 20, 1964, Life published a photograph of Malcolm X holding an M1 Carbine and peering out a window. The photo was intended to illustrate his determination to defend himself and his family against the death threats he was receiving.[135]


Malcolm X in March 1964The Nation of Islam and its leaders began making threats against Malcolm X both in private and in public. On March 23, 1964, Elijah Muhammad told Boston minister Louis X (later known as Louis Farrakhan) that hypocrites like Malcolm should have "their heads cut off."[136] The April 10 edition of Muhammad Speaks featured a cartoon in which his severed head was shown bouncing.[137] On July 9, John Ali, a top aide to Muhammad, answered a question about Malcolm X by saying that "anyone who opposes the Honorable Elijah Muhammad puts their life in jeopardy."[138] The December 4 issue of Muhammad Speaks included an article by Louis X that railed against Malcolm X and said that "such a man as Malcolm is worthy of death."[139]

Some threats were made anonymously. During the month of June 1964, FBI surveillance recorded two such threats. On June 8, a man called Malcolm X's home and told Betty Shabazz to "tell him he's as good as dead."[140] On June 12, an FBI informant reported getting an anonymous telephone call from somebody who said "Malcolm X is going to be bumped off."[141]

In June 1964, the Nation of Islam sued to reclaim Malcolm X's residence in Queens, New York, which they claimed to own. The suit was successful, and Malcolm X was ordered to vacate.[142] On February 14, 1965, the night before a scheduled hearing to postpone the eviction date, the house burned to the ground. Malcolm X and his family survived. No one was charged with any crime.[143]

[edit] Death
[edit] Assassination

Bullet holes in back of the stage where Malcolm X was shot (circled).On February 21, 1965, in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom, Malcolm X began to speak to a meeting of the Organization of Afro-American Unity when a disturbance broke out in the crowd of 400.[144] A man yelled, "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!"[145][146] As Malcolm X and his bodyguards moved to quiet the disturbance,[147] a man rushed forward and shot him in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun.[148] Two other men charged the stage and fired handguns, hitting him 16 times.[146] Angry onlookers caught and beat one of the assassins as the others fled the ballroom.[149][150] Malcolm X was pronounced dead at 3:30 p.m., shortly after he arrived at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.[144]

Talmadge Hayer, a Black Muslim also known as Thomas Hagan, was arrested on the scene.[150] Eyewitnesses identified two more suspects, Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson, also members of the Nation of Islam. All three were charged in the case.[151] At first Hayer denied involvement, but during the trial he confessed to having fired shots at Malcolm X. He testified that Butler and Johnson were not present and were not involved in the assassination, but he declined to name the men who had joined him in the shooting.[152] All three men were convicted.[153]

Butler, now known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985. He became the head of the Nation of Islam's Harlem mosque in New York in 1998. He continues to maintain his innocence.[154] Johnson, now known as Khalil Islam, was released from prison in 1987. During his time in prison, he rejected the teachings of the Nation of Islam and converted to Sunni Islam. He, too, maintains his innocence.[155] Hayer, now known as Mujahid Halim, was paroled in 1993.[156]

[edit] Funeral
The number of mourners who came to the public viewing in Harlem's Unity Funeral Home from February 23 through February 26 was estimated to be between 14,000 and 30,000.[157] The funeral of Malcolm X was held on February 27 at the Faith Temple, Church of God in Christ, in Harlem. The Church was filled to capacity with more than 1,000 people.[158] Loudspeakers were set up outside the Temple so the overflowing crowd could listen[159] and a local television station broadcast the funeral live.[160]

Among the civil rights leaders in attendance were John Lewis, Bayard Rustin, James Forman, James Farmer, Jesse Gray, and Andrew Young.[158][161] Actor and activist Ossie Davis delivered the eulogy, describing Malcolm X as "our shining black prince".

There are those who will consider it their duty, as friends of the Negro people, to tell us to revile him, to flee, even from the presence of his memory, to save ourselves by writing him out of the history of our turbulent times. Many will ask what Harlem finds to honor in this stormy, controversial and bold young captain—and we will smile. Many will say turn away—away from this man, for he is not a man but a demon, a monster, a subverter and an enemy of the black man—and we will smile. They will say that he is of hate—a fanatic, a racist—who can only bring evil to the cause for which you struggle! And we will answer and say to them: Did you ever talk to Brother Malcolm? Did you ever touch him, or have him smile at you? Did you ever really listen to him? Did he ever do a mean thing? Was he ever himself associated with violence or any public disturbance? For if you did you would know him. And if you knew him you would know why we must honor him.[162]

Malcolm X was buried at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.[160] At the gravesite after the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and completed the burial themselves.[163] Actor and activist Ruby Dee (wife of Ossie Davis) and Juanita Poitier (wife of Sidney Poitier) established the Committee of Concerned Mothers to raise funds to buy a house and pay educational expenses for Malcolm X's family.[164]

[edit] Responses to assassination
Reactions to Malcolm X's assassination were varied. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. sent a telegram to Betty Shabazz, expressing his sadness over "the shocking and tragic assassination of your husband."

While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problem, I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had a great ability to put his finger on the existence and the root of the problem. He was an eloquent spokesman for his point of view and no one can honestly doubt that Malcolm had a great concern for the problems we face as a race.[165]

Elijah Muhammad told the annual Savior's Day convention on February 26, "Malcolm X got just what he preached."[166] "We didn't want to kill Malcolm and didn't try to kill him," Muhammad said. "We know such ignorant, foolish teachings would bring him to his own end."[167]

The New York Times wrote that Malcolm X was "an extraordinary and twisted man" who "turn[ed] many true gifts to evil purpose" and that his life was "strangely and pitifully wasted".[7] The New York Post wrote that "even his sharpest critics recognized his brilliance—often wild, unpredictable and eccentric, but nevertheless possessing promise that must now remain unrealized."[168]

The international press, particularly that of Africa, was sympathetic. The Daily Times of Nigeria wrote that Malcolm X "will have a place in the palace of martyrs."[8] The Ghanaian Times likened him to John Brown and Patrice Lumumba among "a host of Africans and Americans who were martyred in freedom's cause".[169]

Guangming Daily, published in Beijing, stated that "Malcolm was murdered because he fought for freedom and equal rights."[170] In Cuba, El Mundo described the assassination as "another racist crime to eradicate by violence the struggle against discrimination".[9]

[edit] Allegations of conspiracy
Within days of the assassination, questions were raised about who bore ultimate responsibility. On February 23, James Farmer, the leader of the Congress of Racial Equality, announced at a news conference that local drug dealers, and not the Black Muslims, were to blame.[171] Others accused the New York Police Department, the FBI, or the CIA, citing the lack of police protection and the ease with which the assassins entered the Audubon Ballroom.[172]

In the 1970s, the public learned about COINTELPRO and other secret FBI programs directed towards infiltrating and disrupting civil rights organizations during the 1950s and 1960s.[173] John Ali, national secretary of the Nation of Islam, was identified as an FBI undercover agent.[174] Malcolm X had confided in a reporter that Ali exacerbated tensions between him and Elijah Muhammad. He considered Ali his "archenemy" within the Nation of Islam leadership.[174] On February 20, 1965, the night before the assassination, Ali met with Talmadge Hayer, one of the men convicted of killing Malcolm X.[175]

In 1977 and 1978, Talmadge Hayer submitted two sworn affidavits re-asserting his claim that Butler and Johnson were not involved in the assassination. In his affidavits Hayer named four men, all members of the Nation of Islam's Newark Temple Number 25, as having participated with him in the crime. Hayer asserted that a man, later identified as Wilbur McKinley, shouted and threw a smoke bomb to create a diversion. Hayer said that another man, later identified as William Bradley, had a shotgun and was the first to fire on Malcolm X after the diversion. Hayer asserted that he and a man later identified as Leon David, both armed with pistols, fired on Malcolm X immediately after the shotgun blast. Hayer also said that a fifth man, later identified as Benjamin Thomas, was involved in the conspiracy.[176][177] Hayer's statements failed to convince authorities to reopen their investigation of the murder.[178]

Some, including the Shabazz family, have accused Louis Farrakhan of being involved in the plot to assassinate Malcolm X.[179][180][181] In a 1993 speech, Louis Farrakhan seemed to boast of the assassination:

Was Malcolm your traitor or ours? And if we dealt with him like a nation deals with a traitor, what the hell business is it of yours? A nation has to be able to deal with traitors and cutthroats and turncoats.[182][183]

In a 60 Minutes interview that aired during May 2000, Farrakhan stated that some of the things he said may have led to the assassination of Malcolm X. "I may have been complicit in words that I spoke", he said. "I acknowledge that and regret that any word that I have said caused the loss of life of a human being."[184] A few days later Farrakhan denied that he "ordered the assassination" of Malcolm X, although he again acknowledged that he "created the atmosphere that ultimately led to Malcolm X's assassination."[185] No consensus on who was responsible has been reached.[186]

[edit] Philosophy
Except for his autobiography, Malcolm X left no writings. His philosophy is known almost entirely from the myriad speeches and interviews he gave between 1952 until his death in 1965.[187] Many of those speeches, especially from the last year of his life, were recorded and have been published.[188]

[edit] Beliefs of the Nation of Islam
Further information: Beliefs and theology of the Nation of Islam
Before he left the Nation of Islam in 1964, Malcolm X taught its beliefs in his speeches. His speeches were peppered with the phrase "The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that ...".[189] It is virtually impossible to discern whether Malcolm X's beliefs diverged from the teachings of the Nation of Islam.[190][191] Malcolm X once compared himself to a ventriloquist's dummy who could only say what Elijah Muhammad told him.[189]

Malcolm X taught that black people were the original people of the world,[64] and that white people were a race of devils who were created by an evil scientist named Yakub.[65] The Nation of Islam believed that black people were superior to white people, and that the demise of the white race was imminent.[66]

When he was questioned concerning his statements that white people were devils, Malcolm X said that "history proves the white man is a devil."[192] He enumerated some of the historical reasons that, he felt, supported his argument: "Anybody who rapes, and plunders, and enslaves, and steals, and drops hell bombs on people... anybody who does these things is nothing but a devil."[193]

Malcolm X said that Islam was the "true religion of black mankind" and that Christianity was "the white man's religion" that had been imposed upon African Americans by their slave-masters.[194] He said that the Nation of Islam followed Islam as it was practiced around the world, but the Nation's teachings varied from those of other Muslims because they were adapted to the "uniquely pitiful" condition of black people in America.[195] He taught that Wallace Fard Muhammad, the founder of the Nation, was Allah,[196] and that Elijah Muhammad was his Messenger, or prophet.[197]

While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from white people. The Nation of Islam proposed the establishment of a separate country for black people in the Southern United States[67] as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa.[68] Malcolm X also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence and instead advocated that black people use any necessary means of self-defense to protect themselves.[69]

[edit] Independent views

Malcolm X at a 1964 press conferenceAfter he left the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X began to articulate his own views. During the final year of his life, his philosophy was flexible, and it is difficult to categorize his views on some subjects. Some of the themes to which Malcolm X frequently returned in his speeches demonstrate a relative consistency of thought.[198]

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X announced his willingness to work with leaders of the civil rights movement.[99] However, he felt that the civil rights movement should change its focus to human rights. So long as the movement remained a fight for civil rights, its struggle remained a domestic issue. By framing the African American struggle for equal rights as a fight for human rights, it would become an international issue and the movement could bring its complaint before the United Nations. Malcolm X said the emerging nations of the world would add their support to the cause of African Americans.[199]

Malcolm X continued to hold the view that African Americans were right to defend themselves from aggressors, arguing that if the government was unwilling or unable to protect black people, they should protect themselves "by whatever means necessary".[200] He also continued to reject nonviolence as the only means for securing equality, declaring that he and the other members of the Organization of Afro-American Unity were determined to win freedom, justice, and equality "by any means necessary".[201]

Malcolm X stressed the global perspective he gained from his international travels. He emphasized the "direct connection" between the domestic struggle of African Americans for equal rights with the liberation struggles of Third World nations.[202] He said that African Americans were wrong when they thought of themselves as a minority; in a global context, black people were a majority, not a minority.[203]

Although he no longer called for the separation of black people from white people, Malcolm X continued to advocate black nationalism, which he defined as self-determination for the African-American community.[204] In the last months of his life, however, Malcolm X began to reconsider his support of black nationalism after meeting northern African revolutionaries who, to all appearances, were white.[205]

After his Hajj, Malcolm X articulated a view of white people and racism that represented a deep change from the philosophy he articulated as a minister of the Nation of Islam. In a famous letter from Mecca, he wrote that the white people he met during his pilgrimage forced him to "rearrange" his thinking about race and "toss aside some of [his] previous conclusions".[206]

In a 1965 conversation with Gordon Parks, two days before his assassination, Malcolm said:

[L]istening to leaders like Nasser, Ben Bella, and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism. I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem. It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another.

Brother, remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurant—the one who wanted to help the [Black] Muslims and the whites get together—and I told her there wasn't a ghost of a chance and she went away crying? Well, I've lived to regret that incident. In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now. I was a zombie then—like all [Black] Muslims—I was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march. Well, I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost. It cost me 12 years.

That was a bad scene, brother. The sickness and madness of those days—I'm glad to be free of them.[207]

[edit] Legacy

Malcolm X in 1964Malcolm X has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.[11][12][13] He is credited with raising the self-esteem of black Americans and reconnecting them with their African heritage.[208] He is responsible for the spread of Islam in the black community in the United States.[209]

Many African Americans, especially those who lived in cities in the Northern and Western United States, felt that Malcolm X articulated their complaints concerning inequality better than the mainstream civil rights movement did.[71] One biographer says that by giving expression to their frustration, Malcolm X "made clear the price that white America would have to pay if it did not accede to black America's legitimate demands."[210]

In the late 1960s, as black activists became more radical, Malcolm X and his teachings were part of the foundation on which they built their movements. The Black Power movement,[211] the Black Arts Movement,[212] and the widespread adoption of the slogan "Black is beautiful"[213] can all trace their roots to Malcolm X.

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was a resurgence of interest in Malcolm X among young people fueled, in part, by his use as an icon by hip hop groups such as Public Enemy.[214] Images of Malcolm X could be found on T-shirts and jackets.[215] This wave peaked in 1992 with the release of Malcolm X, a much-anticipated film adaptation of The Autobiography of Malcolm X.[216]

[edit] Portrayals in film and on stage
The 1992 film Malcolm X was directed by Spike Lee and based on The Autobiography of Malcolm X. It starred Denzel Washington, with Angela Bassett as Betty Shabazz and Al Freeman, Jr., as Elijah Muhammad.[217] Critic Roger Ebert and director Martin Scorsese both named the film one of the ten best of the 1990s.[218]

Washington had previously played the part of Malcolm X in the 1981 Off Broadway play When the Chickens Came Home to Roost.[219] Other actors who have portrayed Malcolm X include:

James Earl Jones, in the 1977 film The Greatest.[220]
Dick Anthony Williams, in the 1978 television miniseries King[221] and the 1989 American Playhouse production of the Jeff Stetson play The Meeting.[222]
Al Freeman, Jr., in the 1979 television miniseries Roots: The Next Generations.[223]
Morgan Freeman, in the 1981 television movie Death of a Prophet.[224]
Ben Holt, in the 1986 opera X (The Life and Times of Malcolm X).[225]
Gary Dourdan, in the 2000 television movie King of the World.[226]
Joe Morton, in the 2000 television movie Ali: An American Hero.[227]
Mario Van Peebles, in the 2001 film Ali.[228]
[edit] Memorials and tributes
The Malcolm X House Site, at 3448 Pinkney Street in North Omaha, Nebraska, marks the place where Malcolm Little first lived with his family. The house where the Little family lived was torn down in 1965 by owners who did not know of its connection with Malcolm X.[229] The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984 and a historic marker identifies the site because of the importance of Malcolm X to American history and national culture.[230][231] In 1987 the site was added to the Nebraska register of historic sites and marked with a state plaque.[232]

Lansing, Michigan, where Malcolm Little spent his early, formative years, is home to a Michigan Historical Marker erected in 1975 marking his homesite.[233] The city is also home to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz Academy, a public charter school with an Afrocentric focus. The Academy is located in the building where Little attended elementary school.[234]


Malcolm X Boulevard in New York CityThe city of Berkeley, California has recognized Malcolm X's birthday as a citywide holiday since 1979.[235]

There have been dozens of schools named after Malcolm X, including Malcolm X Shabazz High School in Newark, New Jersey,[236] Malcolm Shabazz City High School in Madison, Wisconsin,[237] and Malcolm X College in Chicago, Illinois.[238]

Many cities have renamed streets after Malcolm X. In New York City, Lenox Avenue was renamed Malcolm X Boulevard in the late 1980s.[239] The name of Reid Street in Brooklyn, New York, was changed to Malcolm X Boulevard in 1985.[240] In 1997, Oakland Avenue in Dallas, Texas, was renamed Malcolm X Boulevard.[241]

In 2005, Columbia University announced the opening of the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center. The memorial is located in the Audubon Ballroom, where Malcolm X was assassinated.[242]

[edit] See also
Malcolm X: Make It Plain
Malcolm X: Prince of Islam
Message to the Grass Roots
[edit] Published works
The Autobiography of Malcolm X. With the assistance of Alex Haley. New York: Grove Press, 1965. OCLC 219493184
By Any Means Necessary: Speeches, Interviews, and a Letter by Malcolm X. George Breitman, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970. OCLC 249307
The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X. Benjamin Karim, ed. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971. OCLC 149849
February 1965: The Final Speeches. Steve Clark, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1992. ISBN 0873487494 OCLC 47632957
The Last Speeches. Bruce Perry, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1989. ISBN 0873485432 OCLC 123180752
Malcolm X on Afro-American History. New York: Merit Publishers, 1967. OCLC 78155009
Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. George Breitman, ed. New York: Merit Publishers, 1965. OCLC 256095445
Malcolm X Talks to Young People. New York: Young Socialist Alliance, 1965. OCLC 81990227
Malcolm X Talks to Young People: Speeches in the United States, Britain, and Africa. Steve Clark, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1991. ISBN 0873486315 OCLC 23096901
The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard. Archie Epps, ed. New York: Morrow, 1968. OCLC 185901618
Two Speeches by Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1965. OCLC 19464959
[edit] Notes
^ This name includes the honorific El-Hajj, which is given to a Muslim who has completed the Hajj to Mecca. Malise Ruthven (1997). Islam: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-19-285389-9.
^ Baldwin, Lewis V.; Al-Hadid, Amiri YaSin. Between Cross and Crescent: Christian and Muslim Perspectives on Malcolm and Martin. Gainesville, Fla.: University Press of Florida. p. 135. ISBN 0-8130-2457-9.
^ Dyson, pp. 13–14.
^ Khan, Ali (1994). "Lessons from Malcolm X: Freedom by Any Means Necessary". Howard Law Journal 38: 80. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=938821. Retrieved August 2, 2009.
^ Morris, Jerome E. (Summer 2001). "Malcolm X's Critique of the Education of Black People". The Western Journal of Black Studies 25 (2). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go2877/is_2_25/ai_n28889706/. Retrieved August 2, 2009.
^ Cone, pp. 99–100, 251–252, 310–311.
^ a b "Malcolm X". The New York Times. February 22, 1965. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20E13F63F5812738DDDAB0A94DA405B858AF1D3. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ a b Evanzz, p. 305.
^ a b Rickford, p. 248.
^ "The Black Supremacists". Time. August 10, 1959. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811191-1,00.html. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
^ a b Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amhert, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. p. 333. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
^ a b Marable, Manning; Nishani Frazier, John Campbell McMillian (2003). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 251. ISBN 0-231-10890-7.
^ a b Salley, Columbus (1999). The Black 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential African-Americans, Past and Present. New York: Citadel Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-8065-2048-5.
^ a b Perry, p. 2.
^ Perry, p. 3.
^ Natambu, p. 7.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 3–4. There have been many editions of The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Page numbers cited in the notes refer to the One World trade paperback edition (1992).
^ a b Natambu, p. 6.
^ Perry, pp. 3–4.
^ Perry, pp. 2–3.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 5.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 7, 10–11.
^ Perry, pp. 2, 4.
^ Natambu, p. 1.
^ Perry, p. 12.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 14.
^ Natambu, p. 10.
^ Perry, p. 24.
^ Perry, pp. 33–34, 331.
^ a b Perry, p. 42.
^ Natambu, pp. 21–29.
^ Perry, pp. 32–48.
^ Natambu, pp. 30–31.
^ Perry, pp. 58–81.
^ a b Carson, p. 108.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 124.
^ Helfer, p. 37.
^ Perry, p. 99.
^ Helfer, p. 40.
^ a b Carson, p. 99.
^ Perry, pp. 104–106.
^ Natambu, p. 121.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 178; ellipsis in original.
^ Perry, pp. 108–110.
^ Perry, p. 118.
^ Natambu, pp. 127–128.
^ Natambu, p. 128.
^ Perry, p. 113.
^ Natambu, pp. 132–138.
^ Perry, pp. 113–114.
^ Natambu, pp. 138–139.
^ Perry, p. 116.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 199.
^ Perry, pp. 142, 144–145.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 229.
^ Carson, p. 95.
^ The Nation of Islam numbered its Temples according to the order in which they were established. Perry, pp. 141–142.
^ Natambu, p. 168.
^ Perry, p. 147.
^ Perry, p. 152.
^ Perry, p. 153.
^ Perry, pp. 161–164.
^ Perry, pp. 174–179.
^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 55.
^ a b Perry, p. 115.
^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 57.
^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 149–152.
^ a b Malcolm X, End of White World Supremacy, p. 78.
^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 173–174.
^ Natambu, p. 182.
^ a b Cone, pp. 99–100.
^ Natambu, pp. 215–216.
^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 79–80.
^ Perry, p. 203.
^ King expressed mixed feelings toward Malcolm X. "He is very articulate, ... but I totally disagree with many of his political and philosophical views.... I don't want to seem to sound self-righteous, ... or that I think I have the only truth, the only way. Maybe he does have some of the answer.... I have often wished that he would talk less of violence, because violence is not going to solve our problem. And in his litany of articulating the despair of the Negro without offering any positive, creative alternative, I feel that Malcolm has done himself and our people a great disservice.... [U]rging Negroes to arm themselves and prepare to engage in violence, as he has done, can reap nothing but grief." Haley, Alex (January 1965). "The Playboy Interview: Martin Luther King". Playboy. http://www.playboy.com/arts-entertainment/features/mlk/index.html. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
^ Cone, p. 113.
^ "Timeline". Malcolm X: Make It Plain, American Experience. PBS. May 19, 2005. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/malcolmx/timeline/timeline2.html. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
^ Cone, p. 91.
^ Lomax. When the Word Is Given. pp. 15–16. "Estimates of the Black Muslim membership vary from a quarter of a million down to fifty thousand. Available evidence indicates that about one hundred thousand Negroes have joined the movement at one time or another, but few objective observers believe that the Black Muslims can muster more than twenty or twenty-five thousand active temple people."
^ Clegg. p. 115. "The common response of Malcolm X to questions about numbers—'Those who know aren't saying, and those who say don't know'—was typical of the attitude of the leadership."
^ Natambu, pp. 296–297.
^ Ali, Muhammad (2004). The Soul of a Butterfly: Reflections on Life's Journey. with Hana Yasmeen Ali. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 61. ISBN 0-7432-5569-0.
^ Rickford, pp. 73–74.
^ Betty Shabazz, "Malcolm X as a Husband and Father", Clarke, pp. 132–134.
^ Rickford, pp. 109–110.
^ Rickford, p. 122.
^ Rickford, p. 123.
^ Rickford, p. 197.
^ Rickford, p. 286.
^ Natambu, pp. 230–232.
^ Carson, pp. 197–199.
^ Natambu, pp. 231–233.
^ a b Perry, p. 214.
^ Perry, p. 375.
^ In 1964, Malcolm told Haley, "If I'm alive when this book comes out, it will be a miracle." Haley, "Epilogue", Autobiography, p. 471.
^ a b "Malcolm X Scores U.S. and Kennedy". The New York Times. December 2, 1963. p. 21. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0812FE35541A7B93C0A91789D95F478685F9. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
^ Natambu, pp. 288–290.
^ Perry, p. 242.
^ a b c d Handler, M. S. (March 9, 1964). "Malcolm X Splits with Muhammad". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00D17FB395415738DDDA00894DB405B848AF1D3. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
^ Perry, pp. 230–234
^ Perry, pp. 251–252.
^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 18–22.
^ Perry, pp. 294–296.
^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 33–67.
^ McElrath, Jessica. "Martin Luther King & Malcolm X (Press conference)". African-American History: Civil Rights Movement. about.com. http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/civilrightsmovement/ig/Civil-Rights-Movement-Photos/MLK---Malcolm-X.--7g.htm. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
^ Cone. p. 2. "There was no time for substantive discussions between the two. They were photographed greeting each other warmly, smiling and shaking hands."
^ Perry. p. 255. "Camera shutters clicked. The next day, the Chicago Sun-Times, the New York World Telegram and Sun, and other dailies carried a picture of Malcolm and Martin shaking hands."
^ Perry, pp. 257–259.
^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 23–44.
^ Perry, p. 261.
^ Perry, pp. 262–263.
^ DeCaro, p. 204.
^ Perry, pp. 263–265.
^ Perry, pp. 265–266.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 388–393.
^ Natambu, pp. 304–305.
^ a b Natambu, p. 308.
^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 62.
^ Natambu, p. 303.
^ Perry, p. 269.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 403.
^ Carson, p. 305.
^ Lebert Bethune, "Malcolm X in Europe", Clarke, pp. 226–231.
^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 113–126.
^ Bethune, "Malcolm X in Europe", Clarke, pp. 231–233.
^ Malcolm X (December 3, 1964). "Malcolm X Oxford Debate". Malcolm X: A Research Site. http://www.brothermalcolm.net/2003/mx_oxford/index.html. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
^ Carson, p. 349.
^ Perry, p. 351.
^ Natambu, p. 312.
^ Kundnani, Arun (February 10, 2005). "Black British History: Remembering Malcolm's Visit to Smethwick". Independent Race and Refugee News Network. Institute of Race Relations. http://www.irr.org.uk/2005/february/ak000010.html. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
^ Terrill, p. 9.
^ Karim, p. 128.
^ Perry, pp. 277–278.
^ Karim, pp. 159–160.
^ Crawford, Marc (March 20, 1964). "The Ominous Malcolm X Exits from the Muslims". Life.
^ Kondo, p. 170.
^ Majied, Eugene (April 10, 1964). "On My Own". Muhammad Speaks. Nation of Islam. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/ccbh/mxp/images/sourcebook_img_111.jpg. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
^ Evanzz, p. 248.
^ Evanzz, p. 264.
^ Carson, p. 473.
^ Carson, p. 324.
^ Perry, pp. 290–292.
^ Perry, pp. 352–356.
^ a b Kihss, Peter (February 22, 1965). "Malcolm X Shot to Death at Rally Here". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0A15F63F5812738DDDAB0A94DA405B858AF1D3. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
^ Karim, p. 191.
^ a b Evanzz, p. 295.
^ In his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Alex Haley wrote that Malcolm said, "Hold it! Hold it! Don't get excited. Let's cool it brothers." (p. 499.) According to a transcription of a recording of the shooting, Malcolm's only words were, "Hold it!", which he repeated 10 times. (DeCaro, p. 274.)
^ Perry, p. 366.
^ Perry, pp. 366–367.
^ a b Talese, Gay (February 22, 1965). "Police Save Suspect From the Crowd". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20E12F63F5812738DDDAB0A94DA405B858AF1D3. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
^ Kondo, p. 97.
^ Kondo, p. 110.
^ Rickford, p. 289.
^ "Malcolm X Killer Heads Mosque". BBC News. March 31, 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/71838.stm. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
^ Jacobson, Mark (October 1, 2007). "The Man Who Didn’t Shoot Malcolm X". New York. http://nymag.com/news/features/38358/. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
^ Rickford, p. 489
^ Perry, p. 374. Alex Haley, in his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, says 22,000 (p. 519).
^ a b Rickford, p. 252.
^ DeCaro, p. 291.
^ a b Arnold, Martin (February 28, 1965). "Harlem Is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60615FD38591B7A93CAAB1789D85F418685F9. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ DeCaro, p. 290.
^ Davis, Ossie (February 27, 1965). "Malcolm X's Eulogy". The Official Website of Malcolm X. http://www.malcolmx.com/about/eulogy.html. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
^ Rickford, p. 255.
^ Rickford, pp. 261–262.
^ Martin Luther King, Jr., Telegram to Betty Shabazz, Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., February 26, 1965.
^ Evanzz, p. 301.
^ Clegg, p. 232.
^ Rickford, p. 247.
^ Kenworthy, E. W. (February 26, 1965). "Malcolm Called a Martyr Abroad". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20D15F73F5812738DDDAF0A94DA405B858AF1D3. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ Evanzz, p. 306.
^ Perry, p. 371.
^ Perry, p. 372.
^ Kondo, pp. 7–39.
^ a b Lomax, To Kill a Black Man, p. 198.
^ Evanzz, p. 294.
^ Bush, Roderick (1999). We Are Not What We Seem: Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century. New York: New York University Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-8147-1317-3.
^ Friedly, Michael (1992). Malcolm X: The Assassination. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-88184-922-7.
^ Gardell, Mattias (1996). In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-8223-1845-8.
^ Rickford, pp. 439, 492–495.
^ Evanzz, pp. 298–299.
^ Kondo, pp. 182–183, 193–194.
^ Rickford, p. 492.
^ Wartofsky, Alona (February 17, 1995). "'Brother Minister: The Martyrdom of Malcolm X'". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/videos/brotherministerthemartyrdomofmalcolmx_c0098f.htm. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
^ "Farrakhan Admission On Malcolm X". 60 Minutes. CBS News. May 14, 2000. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/05/10/60minutes/main194051.shtml. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ "Farrakhan Responds to Media Attacks". The Final Call. May 15, 2000. http://www.finalcall.com/columns/mlf/2000/mlf-60minutes05-15-2000.html. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ Natambu, pp. 315–316.
^ Kelley, Robin D. G. (1999). "Malcolm X". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. p. 1233.
^ Terrill, pp. 15–16.
^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 80–81.
^ Terrill, p. 184.
^ Lomax. When the Word Is Given. p. 91. "'I'll be honest with you,' Malcolm X said to me. 'Everybody is talking about differences between the Messenger and me. It is absolutely impossible for us to differ.'"
^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 67.
^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 171.
^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 24, 137–138.
^ Malcolm X, Speeches at Harvard, p. 119.
^ DeCaro, pp. 166–167.
^ Malcolm X told Lewis Lomax that "The Messenger is the Prophet of Allah" (Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 80). On another occasion, he said "We never refer to the Honorable Elijah Muhammad as a prophet" (Malcolm X, Last Speeches, p. 46).
^ Terrill, pp. 109–110.
^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 33–35.
^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, p. 43.
^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, p. 37.
^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, p. 90.
^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, p. 117.
^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 38–41.
^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 212–213.
^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 391.
^ Gordon Parks, "Malcolm X: The Minutes of Our Last Meeting", Clarke, p. 122.
^ Cone, pp. 291–292.
^ Perry, p. 379.
^ Perry, p. 380.
^ Sales, p. 187
^ Woodard, Komozi (1999). A Nation Within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) & Black Power Politics. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8078-4761-5.
^ Cone, p. 291.
^ Sales, p. 5.
^ Sales, p. 3.
^ Sales, p. 4.
^ "Malcolm X". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0104797/. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ Anderson, Jeffrey M. "The Best Films of the 1990s". Combustible Celluloid. http://www.combustiblecelluloid.com/bestof90s.shtml. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ Rich, Frank (July 15, 1981). "The Stage: Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad". The New York Times. http://theater2.nytimes.com/mem/theater/treview.html?res=9D0CE5DA1F38F936A25754C0A967948260. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ "The Greatest". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0076111/. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ "King". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077038/. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ Goodman, Walter (May 3, 1989). "An Imaginary Meeting of Dr. King and Malcolm X". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEED91E31F930A35756C0A96F948260. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ "Roots: The Next Generations". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0078678/. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ "Death of a Prophet". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0179757/. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ Henahan, Donal (September 29, 1986). "Opera: Anthony Davis's 'X (The Life and Times of Malcolm X)'". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DE3DE1631F93AA1575AC0A960948260. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
^ "King of the World". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0219857/. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ "Ali: An American Hero". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0229973/. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ "Ali". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0248667/. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ McMorris, Robert (March 11, 1989). "Empty Lot Holds Dreams for Rowena Moore". Omaha World-Herald. http://www.brothermalcolm.net/2002/omaha/jpeg/moore1.jpg. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ "National Register of Historic Places – Nebraska, Douglas County". National Register of Historic Places. http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/ne/Douglas/state2.html. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ "More Nebraska National Register Sites in Douglas County". Nebraska State Historical Society. http://www.nebraskahistory.org/histpres/nebraska/douglas2.htm. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ "Nebraska Historical Marker". Malcolm X: A Research Site. http://www.brothermalcolm.net/2002/omaha/jpeg/marker1.jpg. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
^ "Malcolm X Homesite". Michigan Historical Markers. http://www.michmarkers.com/startup.asp?startpage=S0455.htm. Retrieved August 30, 2009.
^ Yancey, Patty (2000). "We Hold on to Our Kids, We Hold on Tight: Tandem Charters in Michigan". in Fuller, Bruce. Inside Charter Schools: The Paradox of Radical Decentralization. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-674-00325-X.
^ Thaai, Walker (May 20, 2005). "Berkeley Honors Controversial Civil Rights Figure". San Jose Mercury News. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-6597411_ITM. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
^ Lee, Felicia R. (May 15, 1993). "Newark Students, Both Good and Bad, Make Do". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CEFDC153CF936A25756C0A965958260. Retrieved August 8, 2008.
^ Cotant, Pamela (February 25, 1991). "Shabazz School Gets Special Visit". The Capital Times. http://www.madison.com/archives/read.php?ref=/tct/1991/02/25/9102250463.php. Retrieved August 8, 2008.
^ Witkowsky, Kathy (Spring 2000). "A Day in the Life". National CrossTalk. http://www.highereducation.org/crosstalk/ct0500/news0500-citycollege1.shtml. Retrieved August 8, 2008.
^ Bodovitz, Sandra (July 20, 1987). "What's in a Street Rename? Disorder". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE6DA1531F933A15754C0A961948260. Retrieved August 8, 2008.
^ Rickford, p. 419.
^ Scoville, Jen (December 1997). "The Big Beat". Texas Monthly. Archived from the original on December 29, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20041229062251/http://www.texasmonthly.com/ranch/bigbeat/beat.edec.97.php. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
^ "Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center Launches". Columbia University. May 17, 2005. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/05/05/malcolm.html. Retrieved August 8, 2008.
[edit] References
Carson, Clayborne (1991). Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-88184-758-5.
Clarke, John Henrik, ed. (1990) [1969]. Malcolm X: The Man and His Times. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-201-5.
Clegg III, Claude Andrew (1997). An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-18153-1.
Cone, James H. (1991). Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or a Nightmare. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. ISBN 0-88344-721-5.
DeCaro, Jr., Louis A. (1996). On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1864-7.
Dyson, Michael Eric (1995). Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509235-X.
Evanzz, Karl (1992). The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-049-6.
Helfer, Andrew; Randy DuBurke (2006). Malcolm X: A Graphic Biography. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 0-8090-9504-1.
Karim, Benjamin (1992). Remembering Malcolm. with Peter Skutches and David Gallen. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-88184-881-6.
Kondo, Zak A. (1993). Conspiracys: Unravelling the Assassination of Malcolm X. Washington, D.C.: Nubia Press. ISBN 0-9618815-1-13.
Lomax, Louis E. (1987) [1968]. To Kill a Black Man. Los Angeles: Holloway House. ISBN 0-87067-731-4.
Lomax, Louis E. (1963). When the Word Is Given. Cleveland: World Publishing. OCLC 1071204.
Malcolm X (1992) [1965]. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. with the assistance of Alex Haley. New York: One World. ISBN 0-345-37671-4.
Malcolm X (1989) [1970]. By Any Means Necessary: Speeches, Interviews, and a Letter by Malcolm X. George Breitman, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press. ISBN 0-87348-150-X.
Malcolm X (1989) [1971]. The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X. Benjamin Karim, ed. New York: Arcade. ISBN 1-55970-006-8.
Malcolm X (1990) [1965]. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. George Breitman, ed. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. ISBN 0-8021-3213-8.
Malcolm X (1991) [1968]. The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard. Archie Epps, ed. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-479-5.
Natambu, Kofi (2002). The Life and Work of Malcolm X. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. ISBN 0-02-864218-X.
Perry, Bruce (1991). Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill. ISBN 0-88268-103-6.
Rickford, Russell J. (2003). Betty Shabazz: A Remarkable Story of Survival and Faith Before and After Malcolm X. Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks. ISBN 1-4022-0171-0.
Sales, William W. (1994). From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Boston: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-480-9.
Terrill, Robert (2004). Malcolm X: Inventing Radical Judgment. Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-730-1.
[edit] Further reading
Alkalimat, Abdul. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1990.
Asante, Molefi K. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero: and Other Afrocentric Essays. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1993.
Baldwin, James. One Day, When I Was Lost: A Scenario Based On Alex Haley's "The Autobiography Of Malcolm X". New York: Dell, 1992.
Breitman, George. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1967.
Breitman, George, and Herman Porter. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1976.
Carew, Jan. Ghosts In Our Blood: With Malcolm X in Africa, England, and the Caribbean. Chicago: Lawrence Hill, 1994.
Cleage, Albert B., and George Breitman. Myths About Malcolm X: Two Views. New York: Merit, 1968.
Collins, Rodney P. The Seventh Child. New York: Dafina; London: Turnaround, 2002.
Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs. New York: Stewart, Tabon and Chang, 1992.
DeCaro, Louis A. Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York: New York University, 1998.
Doctor, Bernard Aquina. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1992.
Friedly, Michael. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm A to Z: The Man and His Ideas. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.
Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm X: As They Knew Him. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.
Goldman, Peter. The Death and Life of Malcolm X. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979.
Jamal, Hakim A. From The Dead Level: Malcolm X and Me. New York: Random House, 1972.
Jenkins, Robert L. The Malcolm X Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). Atlanta: Clarity Press, 1986.
Leader, Edward Roland. Understanding Malcolm X: The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy. New York: Vantage Press, 1993.
Lee, Spike with Ralph Wiley. By Any Means Necessary: The Trials and Tribulations of The Making Of Malcolm X. New York, N.Y.: Hyperion, 1992.
Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. Boston, Beacon. 1961.
Maglangbayan, Shawna. Garvey, Lumumba, and Malcolm: National-Separatists. Chicago, Third World Press 1972.
Marable, Manning. On Malcolm X: His Message & Meaning. Westfield, N.J.: Open Media, 1992.
Myers, Walter Dean. Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary. New York: Scholastic, 1993.
Shabazz, Ilyasah. Growing Up X. New York: One World, 2002.
Strickland, William, et al.. Malcolm X: Make It Plain. Penguin Books, 1994.
T'Shaka, Oba. The Political Legacy of Malcolm X. Richmond, California: Pan Afrikan Publications, 1983.
Wolfenstein, Eugene Victor. The Victims of Democracy: Malcolm X and the Black Revolution. London: Free Association Books, 1989.
Wood, Joe, ed. Malcolm X: In Our Own Image. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
[edit] External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Malcolm X
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Malcolm X
Wikisource has original works written by or about: Malcolm X
The Official Web Site of Malcolm X
Malcolm X: Make It Plain
malcolm-x.org
Malcolm X: A Profile
The Malcolm X Project at Columbia University
Malcolm X Reference Archive
Malcolm X: A Research Site
Interviews
Interview with Louis Lomax, from When the Word Is Given (1963)
Interview with Dr. Kenneth Clark, Spring 1963
Video interview with Herman Blake, October 1963
Interview with A.B. Spellman, May 1964
CBC television interview, January 1965
Other links
Malcolm X's FBI file
The Smoking Gun: The Malcolm X Files
Malcolm X's gravesite
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Persondata
NAME Malcolm X
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Little, Malcolm; El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz
SHORT DESCRIPTION Nation of Islam leader
DATE OF BIRTH May 19, 1925
PLACE OF BIRTH North Omaha, Nebraska, United States
DATE OF DEATH February 21, 1965
PLACE OF DEATH New York City, New York, United States


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_X"
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Wikipedia - List of converters to Islam



List of converts to Islam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The following is an incomplete list of notable people who converted to Islam from a different religion or no religion. This article addresses only past professions of faith by the individuals listed, and is not intended to address ethnic, cultural, or other considerations, such as marriage. Such cases are noted in their list entries.

Contents [hide]
1 From Abrahamic religions
1.1 From Christianity
1.1.1 A
1.1.2 B
1.1.3 C
1.1.4 D
1.1.5 E
1.1.6 F
1.1.7 G
1.1.8 H
1.1.9 I
1.1.10 J
1.1.11 K
1.1.12 L
1.1.13 M
1.1.14 N
1.1.15 O
1.1.16 P
1.1.17 Q
1.1.18 R
1.1.19 S
1.1.20 T
1.1.21 U
1.1.22 V
1.1.23 W
1.1.24 X
1.1.25 Y
1.1.26 Z
1.2 From Judaism
2 From Dharmic religions
2.1 From Buddhism
2.2 From Hinduism
2.3 From Sikhism
3 Other
3.1 From Paganism
3.2 From Zoroastrianism
3.3 From Atheism
3.4 Undetermined former religion
4 See also
5 References


[edit] From Abrahamic religions
[edit] From Christianity

Keith Ellison is the first Muslim to be elected to the United States Congress
Yusuf Estes, a former Christian minister, became a Muslim chaplain.[1]
Claude Alexandre de Bonneval as Humbaracı Ahmet Paşa
Dave Chappelle, stand-up comedian
Muhammad Ali- a convert to Islam.
Malcolm X- famous Muslim convert and civil rights leader
Mohammed Zakariya
Timothy Winter at Al-Hidayah (26 August 2007)
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, NBA player
Chris Eubank British boxer
Marmaduke Pickthall, a British convert who translated the Qur'an to English[edit] A
Abdul-Karim al-Jabbar (Sharmon Shah) - former NFLFootball player[2]
Abdur Raheem Green
Abu Tammam - 9th century Arab poet born to Christian parents.[3]
Abu Usamah - controversial American-born Imam of Green Lane Masjid in Birmingham, UK. Accused of preaching messages of hate towards non-Muslims in a UK Television documentary.[4]
Ahmad Rashād - Emmy award-winning sportscaster (mostly with NBC Sports) and former American football wide receiver.[5][6]
Ahmed Santos - Filipino, fugitive, founder of the Rajah Solaiman Movement & suspected by Filipino authorities to be an Al Qaeda operative converted From Catholicism[7][8][9]
Ahmad Thomson - British barrister and writer and also a member of the Murabitun movement.[10]
Akhenaton - French rapper and producer of French hip hop.[11]
Alexander Litvinenko - former Russian spy converted to Islam on his deathbed.[12][13]
Alexander Russell Webb - Former Presbyterian.[14] American journalist, newspaper owner, and former Consul-General of the U.S.A. in the Philippines.[15][16]
André Carson - former Baptist,[17] second Muslim to serve the United States Congress.[18]
Anthony Green or Abdul Raheem Green, Converted from Catholicism to Islam, and is now an Islamic lecturer.[19]
Art Blakey - American Jazz musician[20]
Aukai Collins - fought in Chechnya, paid FBI informant, author of an autobiographical book[21]
Anthony Mundine - former Australian rugby league player for the St George Illawarra Dragons and now a boxer
[edit] B
Benjamin Chavis - controversial former head of the NAACP; joined the Nation of Islam.
Bernard Hopkins - American boxer[22]
Betty Shabazz - wife of Malcolm X; former Methodist.[23]
Bilal Philips - Islamic scholar and author[24]
Bruno Metsu - French coach of the Senegal team at the 2002 FIFA World Cup[25]
[edit] C
Count Cassius- Visigothic aristocrat who founded the Banu Qasi dynasty of Muladi rulers.[26]
Chris Eubank - British boxer[27]
Claude Alexandre de Bonneval or Humbaracı Ahmet Paşa is 18th century French nobleman.[28]
[edit] D
Daniel Moore - poet [29]
Danny Thompson - English double bass player converted from Catholicism.[30]
Danny Williams - British boxer[31]
David Belfield - American, fled to Iran after assassinating Ali Akbar Tabatabai, an Iranian dissident.[32]
David Benjamin Keldani, a former Catholic priest.
Dave Chappelle - comedian and television star [33]
Dawud Wharnsby Ali (David Wharnsby) - Canadian singer/poet.[34][35]
[edit] E
Elsa Kazi - German writer of one-act plays, short stories, novels and history, and one of the greatest poets of her time.
Éric Abidal (changed his name to Bilal) - French football player, currently playing for FC Barcelona, converted to Islam after marriage.[36]
Everlast - Rapper from the Irish-American hip-hop group House of Pain, converted From Catholicism. [14]
[edit] F
Franck Ribéry- a French football player. His name after he converted to Islam is Bilal.[37]
[edit] G
Gabriele Torsello - Italian freelance photojournalist based in London who was abducted in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.[38]
George XI of Kartli - Saffavid commander.[39]
Germaine Lindsay - one of the suicide terrorists in the 7 July 2005 London bombings[40][41][42] in which 52 people were murdered.
[edit] H
Hamza Yusuf - American convert from Greek Orthodox; head of the Zaytuna Institute.[43]
Hedley Churchward - English painter[44]
[edit] I
Ian Dallas - Shaykh Dr. Abdalqadir as-Sufi - Sufi shaykh of Scottish origins.[45]
Ibrahim Muteferrika (original name not known) - From Unitarian Christianity, an early example of a Muslim publisher and printer.[46]
Ice Cube - Superstar Rapper from compton to Nation of Islam
Ilie II Rareş - prince of Moldavia.[47]
Ingrid Mattson - Canadian scholar and current president of the Islamic Society of North America (2006) converted From Catholicism.[48]
Isabelle Eberhardt - from Lutheran Christianity, 19th century explorer & writer[49]
Ivan Aguéli (Johan Agelii) - famous Swedish painter.[50][51]
Iyasu V - Ethiopian emperor.[52]
[edit] J
C. Jack Ellis - Mayor of Macon, Georgia[53]
Jacques-Francois Menou - French general under Napoleon I of France.[54]
James Yee - previously Lutheran[55] and former U.S. Army Muslim chaplain.[56]
Jean de Béthencourt - French explorer who led an expedition to the Canary Islands.[57]
Jeffrey Lang, a mathematics professor in USA.[58]
Jerald F. Dirks, former ordained Deacon in United Methodist Church, Harvard Divinity School graduate and author of several book on Islam and Christianity.
Jermaine Jackson (Muhammad Abdul Aziz) - former member of The Jackson 5.[59]
Jerôme Courtailler - one of two French brothers convicted by French authorities in 2004 for abetting terrorists[40][60][61]
Jimmy Cliff - Jamaican reggae musician.[62][63]
Joe Tex - soul singer and recording artist.[64]
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt was a Swiss traveller and orientalist.[citation needed]
St. John Philby - Arabist, explorer, writer, and British colonial office intelligence operative; converted from Anglicanism.[65]
John Walker Lindh - the "American Taliban" converted From Catholicism[66][67]
John Whitehead - an American singer, songwriter, and record producer.[68]
John Nelson - first recorded Englishman to become a Muslim.[69]
Joseph Thomas - Australian convert, acquitted of terrorism charges, placed under a control order under the Australian Anti-Terrorism Act 2005, currently pending retrial.[70][71]
Judar Pasha - conqueror of the Songhai Empire.[72]
[edit] K
Kamala Surayya (Kamala Das) - Indian writer who wrote in English and Malayalam.
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (Lew Alcindor) - retired basketball player & the NBA's all-time leading scorer[73]
Keith Ellison - American, Representative from Minnesota's 5th congressional district, first Muslim to be elected to the United States Congress, converted From Catholicism[74]
Kevin Barrett - university lecturer and member of Scholars for 9/11 Truth.[75]
Khalid Yasin - Executive Director of the Islamic Teaching Institute, and a Shaykh currently residing in Australia.[76]
Knud Holmboe - Danish journalist and explorer converted From Catholicism.[77]
Köse Mihal - a Byzantine renegade, he accompanied Osman al-Ghazi in his ascent to power and converted to Islam.[78][79]
Kumba Ialá - a Guinea-Bissau politician who converted in 2008.
[edit] L
Dolores "LaLa" Brooks - American musician.[80]
Loon - American hip hop and rap artist [81]
Lee Hughes - professional association football player, currently playing for Notts County F.C. [82]
[edit] M
Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf (Chris Jackson) - retired basketball player[83]
Malcolm X - American, from Christianity to Nation of Islam to Sunni Islam, African-American civil rights leader.[84]
Marmaduke Pickthall - famous translator of the Quran.[85]
Mario Scialoja - Italian ambassador and President of the World Muslim League.[86]
Matthew Saad Muhammad (formerly Matthew Franklin) - former boxer, converted From Catholicism.[87]
Matthew Yusuf Smith, also known as Yusuf and Indigo Jo, author of the award winning blog[88] Indigo Jo Blogs, where he muses about life and courts controversy[89]
Michael Muhammad Knight - American novelist, writer, and journalist.[90]
Mike Tyson - Is an American boxer to Sunni
Mihnea Turcitul - was a Prince (Voivode) of Walachia. Converted from Eastern Orthodox Christianity.[91]
Mohammad Yousuf - Pakistani cricketer. Known for holding the world record for the most Test runs in a single calendar year, converted From Catholicism.[92]
Mohammed Knut Bernström - Swedish ambassador to Venezuela (1963–1969), Spain (1973–1976) and Morocco (1976–1983)[93]
Mohammed Zakariya - an American master of Arabic calligraphy, best known for his work on the popular Eid U.S. postage stamp.[94]
Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman Barker (Philip Barker) - professor of Urdu, former chair of the University of Minnesota's Department of South Asian studies and creator of the Tékumel fantasy world.[95]
Muhammad Ali (formerly Cassius Clay), from Baptist[96][97] to The Nation of Islam to Sunni Islam.[98] famous boxer.
Muhammed al-Ahari born January 6, 1965 as Ray Allen Rudder is an American essayist, scholar and writer on the topics of American Islam, Black Nationalist groups, heterodox Islamic groups and modern occultism
Murad Wilfred Hofmann - NATO official, converted From Catholicism[99]
[edit] N
Nicolas Anelka - French football player[100]
Nuh Ha Mim Keller - from Catholicism to agnosticism to Sunni Islam, Islamic scholar.[101]
[edit] O
Olu Dara (born Charles Jones III in Natchez, Mississippi[1] on 12 January 1941) is an American cornetist, guitarist and singer
Omar Bongo - Gabonese, President of Gabon.[102]
Omar Pasha - Ottoman general. Converted from Serbian Orthodoxy.[103]
[edit] P
Peter Murphy - vocalist of the goth/rock group Bauhaus, converted from Catholicism.[104]
Pierre Vogel - German Islamic preacher and former professional Boxer.
Poncke Princen - Dutch soldier, later human rights activist, converted From Catholicism.[105]
Preacher Moss - Former Baptist,[106] American comedian and comedy writer.[107]
[edit] Q
[edit] R
Radu cel Frumos - was the younger brother of Vlad Ţepeş (Dracula) and prince of the principality of Wallachia, converted From Catholicism.[108]
René Guénon - French Author in the field of metaphysics, converted From Catholicism. [109][110]
Richard Colvin Reid - shoe bomber (convicted terrorist) [111]
Richard Thompson - British musician, best known for his guitar playing and songwriting.[112]
Robert D. Crane is the former adviser to the late President Richard Nixon, and is former Deputy Director (for Planning) of the U.S. National Security Council.[113]
Robin Padilla - Filipino actor.[114]
Roger Garaudy - French philosopher, converted From Catholicism.[115]
Ronald Bell or Khalis Bayyan (born 1 November 1951, Youngstown, Ohio) is an American singer, composer and saxophonist
Rowland Allanson-Winn, 5th Baron Headley - British soldier and peer.[116]
Rudolf Carl von Slatin - Anglo-Austrian soldier and administrator in the Sudan. Later reverted to Catholicism. [117]
Rustie Lee - British television chef and celebrity.[118]
Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood - British author, converted from Protestantism.[119]
Ryan G. Anderson - former Lutheran, convicted of charges of espionage for Al Qaeda[120][121]
Ryan Harris- football player for the Denver Broncos [122]
RZA - Is an American rapper to Nation of Islam
[edit] S
Salman the Persian A convert from Christianity[123] who was previously Zoroastrian. In search for truth, he traveled to Syria to follow Christianity. Upon the death of his teachers, he was directed to head to Arabia, where he was told the final prophet will rise. He later converted to Islam and became one of Muhammad's first companions.
Sana al-Sayegh, dean of the Science and Technology Faculty at Palestine International University, converted to Islam in August 2007. Fatah has accused its political rival Hamas of forcing the professor to convert from Christianity, a charge Hamas denies. [124]
Sarah Joseph - commentator on women's issues and founder of emel magazine, converted From Catholicism.[125]
Brad Terrence Jordan ("Scarface") - American rapper[126]
Sheikh Sharifuddin Khalifa, Born to a catholic family, a young Sheikh who at the Age of 5, converted 1000 people to Islam and met the leader of Libya[127][128][129]

Silma Ihram - formerly a born again Baptist who is an Australian pioneer of Muslim education in the West, founder and former school Principal of the 'Noor Al Houda Islamic College', campaigner for racial tolerance, and Author.[130]
Siraj Wahaj - Former Baptist.[131] African-American Imam, noted for his efforts to eliminate Brooklyn's drug problems.[132]
Sheila Musaji - founder of The American Muslim magazine.[133]
Suhaib Webb - American Islamic activist and speaker.[134]
Suleiman Pasha - French-born Egyptian commander.[135]
[edit] T
T. B. Irving - An American scholar, author and translator
Tariq Abdul-Wahad (Olivier Saint-Jean) - originally from France, former basketball player for the Mavericks and Kings[136]
Tawana Brawley (changed her name to Maryam Muhammad) - African American woman noted for claiming to have been raped by several white men, a claim determined to be a fabrication by a grand jury. Later in life she converted to Islam.[137][138]
Tekuder - Mongol leader of the Ilkhan empire who was formerly a Nestorian Christian.[139]
Thomas J. Abercrombie - photographer[140]
Timothy Winter - prominent British Islamic thinker and scholar, and a lecturer in Islamic studies in the Faculty of Divinity at the University of Cambridge.[141]
Top Topham - rock guitarist from England.[142]
Torquato Cardilli - Italian ambassador, converted From Catholicism.[143]
T-pain - American R'N'B artist
[edit] U
[edit] V
Vincenzo Luvineri - American rapper and the lyricist behind the Philadelphia underground hip-hop group Jedi Mind Tricks, converted From Catholicism.[144]
[edit] W
Wadih el-Hage born to a Maronite Christian family in Sidon, Lebanon, a former al-Qaeda member.[citation needed]
William Abdullah Quilliam - 19th century British poet, ambassador and journalist.[145]
Willie Brigitte - French convert to Islam who associated with al-Qaeda in Pakistan and was possibly involved in a plot to conduct a terrorist operation in Australia.[146]
[edit] X
[edit] Y
Yahiya Emerick - American Muslim scholar, President of the Islamic Foundation of North America, converted from Protestantism.[147]
Yasin Abu Bakr (Lennox Philip) - of Trinidad and Tobago, under trial for an attempted coup as of 9 March 2006[148]
Yusuf Estes - Former preacher and federal prison chaplain, converted from Protestantism.[1]
Yvonne Ridley - British journalist, from Anglicanism. She converted after being kidnapped and released by the Taliban.[149][150]
[edit] Z
Zaid Shakir - American Muslim convert former Baptist, speaker, intellectual, author, and resident scholar of Zaytuna Institute in the United States.[151][152]
Zağanos Pasha - one of the prominent military commanders of Mehmet II (Mehmet the Conqueror) and a lala, at once an advisor, mentor, tutor, councillor, protector, for the sultan.[153]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[edit] From Judaism
Abdullah ibn Salam - 7th century sahabi said to have been a rabbi of aristocratic stock. [154]
Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi - influential physicist, philosopher, and scientist who wrote a critique of Aristotelian philosophy and Aristotelian physics.[155]
Ibn Yahyā al-Maghribī al-Samaw'al was an Arab Muslim mathematician and astronomer of Jewish descent.[156] His father was a Jewish Rabbi from Morocco, but al-Samawʾal converted to Islam.[157]
Jacob Querido - 17th century successor of the self-proclaimed Jewish Messiah Sabbatai Zevi.[158]
Jemima Goldsmith daughter of the billionaire Sir James, who was married to Imran Khan [159]
Leila Mourad - Egyptian singer and actress who rose to fame in the 1940s and 1950s.[160]
Muhammad Asad (Leopold Weiss) - Viennese journalist who visited the Hijaz in the 1930s. Later, after WWII, he became Pakistani ambassador to the United Nations[161]. Also translated the Qur'an into English and wrote several books on Islam. His son Talal Asad is an anthropologist at the City University of New York
Rashid al-Din - 13th century Persian physician[162]
Suleyman Ahmad an American journalist and author[163]
Sultan Rafi Sharif Bey (Yale Singer) - a pioneer in the development of Islamic culture in the United States.[164]
Yaqub ibn Killis - 10th century Egyptian vizier under the Fatimids.[165]
[edit] From Dharmic religions
[edit] From Buddhism
The Barmakid family - originally the guardians of the great Buddhist shrine near Balkh, upon conversion they became "the greatest family" in the early Abbasid caliphate.[166]
Mahmud Ghazan - seventh ruler of the Ilkhanate.[167]
Muhammad Khodabandeh - eighth Ilkhaid dynasty ruler in Iran from 1304 to 1316.[168]
Mubarak Shah - head of the ulus of the Chagatai Khanate (1252–1260, March-September 1266).[169]
Tarmashirin - Khan of the Chagatai Khanate following Duwa Timur.[170]
Hussein Ye - An Islamic scholar of Chinese descent whose lectures are frequently aired on Peace TV.[171]
[edit] From Hinduism

Parameswara (sultan) the Palembang prince of Hindu descent.Parameswara - Malay prince of Palembang Hindu descent from Srivijaya that founded the Sultanate of Malacca around 1402.[172]
Harilal Gandhi - Oldest son of Mohandas K. Gandhi, later reverted back to Hinduism.
Sumita Devi - Bengali actress and filmmaker.[173]
Vilayil Fazila - popular Mappila songs singer from Kerala.[citation needed]
Murshid Quli Khan - the Mughal governor of Bengal.[174]
Malik Kafur - Indian military general.[175]
Abdul Wahid Pedersen - Danish cleric.[176]
Cheraman Perumal - The first Indian king to accept Islam[177]
Sahaj Ram Sapru - the grandfather of the British-Indian Muslim Philosopher, Sir Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, who was an official in Kashmir during the administration of the Afghan Governor Azim Khan. [178]
Kamala Suraiyya (formerly Kamala Das) - Anglo-Malayalam writer[179]
Sharmila Tagore (Begum Ayesha Sultana) - Bollywood film actress.[180]
Kabir Suman- Modern Bengali singer & songwriter officially converted to Islam from Hinduism in 2000. [181]
Tansen - Notable musician and poet.[182][183]
A.R. Rahman (stands for Allah Rakha Rahman) - Modern South Indian singer ,songwriter & Oscar winner officially converted to Islam from Hinduism.[184]
Steven Vikash Chand - Arrested in the 2006 Toronto terrorism arrests[185]
[edit] From Sikhism
Ubaidullah Sindhi - religious leader and political activist.[186]
[edit] Other
[edit] From Paganism
See also: List of Sahaba
Berke - grandson of Genghis Khan and leader of the Golden Horde who was the first Mongol ruler to establish Islam in a Mongol state.[187]
David Myatt - from Paganism, former Neo-Nazi-activist[188]
Negudar - Mongol general and noyan[189]
Nogai Khan - Mongol general and great-grandson of Genghis Khan.[190]
Samori Ture - founder of the Wassoulou Empire who resisted French rule in West Africa.[191][192]
Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan - 9th century Uyghur ruler who was one of the first Turks to convert to Islam.[193]
Tuda Mengu - Mongol leader of the Golden Horde[194]

West African leader Samori Ture who fought European colonialismTughlugh Timur - the Khan of Moghulistan.[195]
[edit] From Zoroastrianism
Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa - author and translator of Kalīla wa Dimna from Middle Persian.[196]
Naubakht - Pahlavi translator of the Abassid court.[197]
Fadl ibn Sahl - Persian vizier of the Abassid era.[198]
Rattanbai Petit - second wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan
Saman Khuda - founder of the Samanid dynasty, one of the first native Persian dynasties in the Middle East and Central Asia after the collapse of the Sassanids.[199]
[edit] From Atheism
A. R. Rahman (Initially raised Hindu, but was atheist as a teenager until conversion to Islam) - famous Indian music composer[200]
Zhang Chengzhi - contemporary Hui Chinese author; raised as an atheist.[201]
Charles le Gai Eaton - British diplomat and writer.[202]
Yusuf Islam (Cat Stevens) - British musician and singer (had a nominally Christian upbringing, but never was a believer)[203]
Jeffrey Lang - American, Professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Kansas. (Raised Catholic, but atheist from age 18 to conversion)[204][205]
Martin Lings - a widely acclaimed British scholar. He was raised as a Protestant, became an atheist, and later converted to Islam.[206]
Mos Def - American rapper and actor. [207]
Nursultan Nazarbayev - The incumbent President of Kazakhstan. Formerly held atheistic views during the Soviet era.[208]
[edit] Undetermined former religion
Nur al-Anwar al-Jerrahi (born Lex Hixon) - syncretist, Sufi convert, and co-founder of the Nur Ashki Jerrahi Sufi Order in the United States.[209]
Thomas J. Abercrombie -Famous photographer and writer for National Geographic Magazine http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/06/AR2006040602187.html
Edoardo Agnelli - eldest son of Gianni Agnelli, the industrialist patriarch of Fiat.
Abd al Malik - birth name Régis Fayette-Mikano - French rapper of Congolese origins.[210]
Mumia Abu-Jamal - journalist, Black Panther, political activist, and although widely disputed, a convicted murderer.[211][212]
B.G. Knocc Out - American west coast rapper.[213]
Hasan Akbar (born Mark Fidel Kools) - American sentenced to death for the murder of two fellow soldiers during the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq.[214]
Maurice Béjart - French choreographer.[215]
Robert "Kool" Bell - musician.[216]
Ronald Bell - musician.[217]
Mohammed Knut Bernström - Swedish ambassador.[218]
Khaled Edward Blair - British barrister, later married Princess Badiya bint El Hassan of Jordan.[219]
Charles Brooks, Jr. - converted while serving a sentence for murder; first person to be executed by lethal injection in the United States.[220]
H. Rap Brown - civil rights activisit.[221]
Titus Burckhardt - Swiss writer and scholar.[222]
Amir Butler- author, engineer and Islamic activist.[223]

Ice Cube, famous rapper , actor, screenwriter and director.Kérim Chatty- Swedish bodybuilding stuntman who was once suspected of attempted hijacking. The preliminary inquiry was dropped. [224]
Jill Courtney - Australian, girlfriend of convicted killer and drug trafficker Hassan Kalache, arrested on 26 March 2006 for attempted murder of unnamed people.[225][226][227]
Robert D. Crane - former Presidential advisor and ambassador.[228]
Ice Cube - Gangsta rapper and actor.[229]
Bob Denard - French mercenary.[230]
Jeffrey Mark Deskovic - served 15-year wrongful imprisonment sentence.[231]
Isabelle Eberhardt - explorer and writer.[232]
Baron omar Rolf von Ehrenfels - Austrian anthropologist and orientalist.[233]
Everlast - Irish-American rapper and singer-songwriter.[234]
Alys Faiz - human rights and peace activist;[235] converted at the time of her marriage to Urdu poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz.[236]
Jeff Fort - former Chicago gang leader, co-founder of the Black P. Stones gang, and founder of its El Rukn faction. He was convicted in 1987 of conspiring with Libya to perform acts of domestic terrorism.[237][238]
Philippe Fragione - French rapper and producer of French hip hop.[239]
Christian Ganczarski- Head of "al Qaeda in Europe".[240]
Philippe Grenier - (1865–1944) French doctor, first and only Muslim MP in France.[241].[242]
Gigi Gryce - American saxophonist, flutist, clarinetist, composer, arranger, and educator.[243]
Walt Hazzard - former NBA player.[244]
David Hicks - convicted Australian terrorist.[245]
Lim Yew Hock - Singapore’s second Chief Minister from 1956 to 1959.[246]
Craig Hodges - former NBA player.[247]
Ibrahim Hooper (Douglas Hooper) - Islamic activist, spokesman for the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR).[248]
Abdullah Ibrahim - South African Jazz musician.[249]
Umar Islam - one of the suspects arrested in the UK in connection to the 2006 transatlantic aircraft terrorist plot in the United Kingdom.[250]
Malik ul Salih - established the first Muslim state of Samudera Pasai.[251]
Tiara Jacquelina - Malaysian actress.[252]
Ahmad Jamal - Jazz pianist.[253]
Jan Janszoon - Dutch pirate.[254]
Larry Johnson - retired American professional basketball player.[255]
Gustave-Henri Jossot - French caricaturist, illustrator and Orientalist painter.[256]
Vladimir Khodov - leader of the Beslan school hostage crisis- converted in prison.[257]
Abd al Haqq Kielan - Swedish cleric.[258]
Ghostface Killah - member of the Wu-Tang Clan.[259]
Begum Om Habibeh Aga Khan - born Yvette Blanche Labrousse, Miss France 1930, wife of Aga Khan III.[260]
Yusef Lateef - American Jazz musician.[261]
Johann von Leers - advisor to Muhammad Naguib known for his anti-Semitic polemics.[262][263][264]
Gary Legenhausen - American philosopher and writer.[265]
Brandon Mayfield - American attorney-at-law, was erroneously linked to the 2004 Madrid train bombings.[266]
MC Ren - American rapper and hip-hop producer.[267]
Ali Shaheed Muhammad - member of A Tribe Called Quest.[268]
Idris Muhammad - American jazz musician.[269]
John Allen Muhammad - convicted serial killer, known as the Beltway Sniper.[270][271]
Anthony Mundine - Australian Boxer.[272]
Abdul Alim Musa - Muslim activist and director of Masjid Al-Islam in Washington, D.C.[273]
Susanne Osthoff - German archaeologist who had worked in Iraq since 1991 and had been taken captive there for three weeks.[274]
José Padilla - the respondent in Rumsfeld v. Padilla currently on trial as an alleged al-Qaida operative, converted while in prison for aggravated assault.[275]
Christopher Paul (aka Paul Kenyatta Laws aka Abdulmalek Kenyatta) - American citizen, alleged member of al-Qaeda.[276][277]

Swiss explorer, Isabelle EberhardtCharles John Pelham (Abdul Mateen), 8th Earl of Yarborough.[278]
Q-Tip - North American hip-hop emcee, actor, and hip hop producer who was the leader of the critically acclaimed group A Tribe Called Quest.[279]
Dwight Muhammad Qawi - former boxing world heavyweight champion.[280]
Jack Roche - convicted of involvement in an al-Qaeda plot to blow up the Israeli embassy in Canberra.[281]
Ilich Ramírez Sánchez - aka "Carlos the Jackal", convicted murderer and terrorist, currently in prison in France.[282]
Ibrahim Savant - one of the suspects arrested in the UK in connection to the 2006 transatlantic aircraft terrorist plot in the United Kingdom.[250]
Frithjof Schuon - metaphysician, poet, painter, philosopher (in the original and Platonic sense of this term), and a leading figure of the perennialist school.[283]
Stephen Schwartz - American journalist, columnist, and author.[284]
Derrick Shareef- charged in a plot to set off four hand grenades in garbage cans 22 December at the CherryVale Mall in Rockford, Illinois during the Christmas rush.[285]
Sahib Shihab - jazz saxophonist and flautist.[286]
Divine Styler - American hip-hop musician.[287]
Nahshid Sulaiman - alternative hip hop artist.[288]
Apisai Tora - Fijian politician.[289]
Mike Tyson (Malik Abdul Aziz) - former heavyweight boxing champion of the world. Converted while in prison after being convicted of rape.[290][291]
Abdul Waheed (Don Stewart-Whyte) - accused of participating in the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot.[292][293]
Jason Walters - of the Netherlands, member of the Hofstad Network, convicted on charges of terrorism.[294]
John Ward - (changed name to Yusuf Reis) British corsair and pirate.[295]
Rakan Ben Williams - suspected member of Al-Qaeda terrorist.[296]
Michael Wolfe - American poet, author, and the President and Executive Producer of Unity Productions Foundation.[297][298]
Michael X - civil rights activist in the United Kingdom [299]
Yusuf Chambers - U.K. based Da'ee of international fame. Yusuf Chambers is a young preacher from London, has greatly involved himself in many organizations in U.K. and outside like Peace TV, Islam Channel, Al-Jumuah magazine, Unity TV etc



[edit] See also
Lists of Muslims
List of people who converted to Christianity
List of converts to Hinduism
List of converts to Judaism
List of converts to Buddhism
List of converts to Sikhism
List of former Muslims
List of people by belief
Religious conversion
[edit] References
This article's citation style may be unclear. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation, footnoting, or external linking. (September 2009)
^ a b Elizabeth Omara-Otunnu (2003-11-17). "Ramadan Awareness Event Designed To Debunk Negative Images". Advance, University of Connecticut. http://advance.uconn.edu/2003/031117/03111715.htm.
^ "NBA great Kareem Abdul-Jabbar wants NFL player to stop using name - the former Sharmon Shah, Miami Dolphin running back being sued by former basketball player" Jet Online. Dec. 1, 1997. Johnson Publishing Co.
^ Ibn Ab̄i Tahir Ṭāyfūr and Arabic writerly culture a ninth-century bookman in Baghdad RoutledgeCurzon Studies in Arabic and Middle-Eastern Literatures: A Ninth-century Bookman in Baghdad, By Shawkat M. Toorawa, pg. 94
^ Guardian newspaper report on police investigation into undercover mosque program. Wednesday August 8 2007
^ Ahmad Rashad Bio - Ahmad Rashad Biography - Ahmad Rashad Stories
^ Minnesota Vikings Football Tickets - Vikings Football - Vikings Tickets
^ In Philippines, watchful eye on converts csmonitor.com
^ Militant Islamic Converts And Terrorism In The Philippines
^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
^ Thomson, Ahmad – Author Information Ibooks
^ Global Noise, By Tony Mitchell, pg. 72
^ Litvinenko converted to Islam, father says - Times Online
^ Litvinenko's Father Says Son Requested Muslim Burial - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY
^ Islam in America, By Jane I. Smith, pg. 189
^ Conversion: Islam, the growing religion
^ The "Yankee Mohammedan": Alexander Russell Webb and the
^ Islam Convert seeks a seat in Congress
^ Catching up: Indiana's Carson will replace his grandmother in Congress
^ YouTube - Why I Came to Islam: Abdur Raheem Green
^ Art Blakey official site In 1948, Art told reporters he had visited Africa, where he learned polyrhythmic drumming and was introduced to Islam, taking the name Abdullah Ibn Buhaina.
^ "My Jihad" - Salon.com
^ Ex-champion Naseem Hamed's comeback battle Special reports | The Observer
^ Gale - Free Resources - Black History - Biographies - Betty Shabazz
^ Dr.Bilal Philips' Official website
^ SOCCER : Metsu's magic ride ends - International Herald Tribune
^ Banu Kasi, Casius, Kasi and Qasi in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia.
^ Telegraph.co.uk - Lengthy queue to join religion that offers 'sense of direction'
^ Claude Alexandre, Comte de Bonneval, or Humbaraci Ahmed Pasa (French noble) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
^ Moore, Abd al-Hayy. CHOOSING ISLAM: ONE MAN'S TALE. University of New Hampshire.
^ The Music Show - 24 February 2007 - Danny Thompson
^ BBC - Beds Herts and Bucks - Sport - Williams on boxing: I am not supposed to do it!
^ [1]
^ On the Beach With Dave Chappelle - TIME
^ IslamonLine.net
^ MySpace.com - Dawud Wharnsby - Colorado - Folk Rock / Acoustique / A'cappella - www.myspace.com/wharnsby
^ Abidal become Muslim with a name Bilal
^ RIBERY HAILS GREAT ZIDANE: Sporting Life 2006 World Cup Finals in Germany, Breaking News, Features, Cannavaro, Zidane, Lippi, Domenech, Buffon, Vieira, Henry
^ BBC NEWS South Asia | Afghan kidnappers 'want convert'
^ Iranica.com - GORGIN KHAN
^ a b Al Qaeda exploits 'blue-eyed' Muslim converts
^ Western white woman a suicide bomber - World - Times Online
^ ICT - International Institute for Counter-Terrorism
^ NPR: Convert Plays Leadership Role in Muslim Community
^ Famous London Muslims
^ The Collected Works by Ian Dallas, Budgate Press, 2005, ISBN 0-620-34379-6
^ UU site
^ The Historians' History of the World by Henry Smith Williams, p. 137, published 1907
^ MSBC Article's title says "Raised Catholic, this Muslim professor is bringing the moderate viewpoint to the world."]
^ Isabelle Eberhardt: Explorer
^ Roald, Anne Sofie (2004). New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts . Brill Academic Publishers. pg.28
^ Aguéli Museum states "He changed his name to Ivan Aguéli. Later he converted to Islam."
^ Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia (London: James Currey, 1991), p. 121.
^ CNN: Macon, Georgia, mayor converts to Islam
^ "The history of new Muslims". Media ISNET. http://media.isnet.org/off/Islam/New/napoleon.html. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
^ The Ordeal of Chaplain Lee
^ CNN.com - U.S. Army Muslim chaplain arrested - Sep. 22, 2003
^ French Armies of the Hundred Years War, By David Nicolle, Angus McBride, pg. 40
^ Jeffry Lang lecture
^ Jermaine Jackson (I) - Biography
^ [http://www.liberation.fr/page. php?Article=217105]
^ Embassy plot offers insight into terrorist recruitment, training - The Advocate
^ allmusic ((( Jimmy Cliff > Biography )))
^ Jimmy Cliff Official Website
^ Joe Tex, 47, Recording Artist And Soul Singer for 30 Years - New York Times
^ Philby, H. Saint John. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2 July 2007.
^ <[2]
^ Transcript of John Ashcroft - February 5, 2002
^ John Whitehead at the Notable Names Database
^ BBC - Religion & Ethics - Islam in the UK (1500s-present): Before the 20th century
^ Thomas convicted under terror laws, Four Corners, 27 February 2006
^ ABC staff (20 December 2006). "Thomas to face retrial on terrorism charges". ABC online (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200612/s1815446.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-20.
^ Davidson, Basil. Africa in History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
^ NY Times Archived Short Book Review of Giant Steps by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Peter Knobler.
^ Keith Ellison for U.S. Congress
^ Barrett's personal website
^ Transcript of Sheikh Khalid Yasin-07/09/2003: Sunday Nights With John Cleary
^ http://www.knud-holmboe.com/books/knud_biography.pdf
^ The Last Great Muslim Empires, By H. J. Kissling, Bertold Spuler, F. R. C. Bagley, pg.3
^ American studies in altaic linguistics, By Denis Sinor, pg.5
^ [3]
^ Rapper star Loon converts to Islam MPACUK (2009-07-15). Retrieved on 2009-08-09.
^ http://archive.thisisworcestershire.co.uk/2005/5/7/14091.html
^ "MAHMOUD ABDUL-RAUF'S SUSPENSION FOR REFUSING TO STAND FOR THE NATIONAL ANTHEM: A "FREE THROW" FOR THE NBA AND DENVER NUGGETS, OR A "SLAM DUNK" VIOLATION OF ABDUL-RAUF'S TITLE VII RIGHTS?" Washington University Law Quarterly.
^ Official website of Malcom X: Biography
^ Islamic Studies : A Research Guide
^ BBC NEWS Europe | Italy prepares for new terrorism
^ Matthew Saad Muhammad
^ "Winner of the Best European Blog". Brass Crescent Awards. 2008. http://www.brasscrescent.org.
^ "Beware The New Axis of Evangelicals and Islamists". The Spectator. 4 March 2009. http://www.spectator.co.uk/the-magazine/features/3409686/part_2/beware-the-new-axis-of-evangelicals-and-islamists.thtml.
^ Comment is free Punk Muslims
^ Ştefan Ştefănescu, Istoria medie a României, Bucharest, Vol. I, 1991, p.164
^ Mohammed Yousuf
^ Roald, Anne Sofie (2004). New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts . Brill Academic Publishers. pg.130
^ Psychology Today: The Soul Searcher
^ Gary Fine, Shared Fantasy: Role Playing Games As Social Worlds, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1983. Reprinted in 2002.
^ On the Other Side of Oddville By Dwight A. Moody, Ike Moody, pg. 122
^ Muhammad Ali & Company By Thomas Hauser, pg. 18
^ Muhammad Ali has embraced Sufi Islam and is on a new spiritual quest - Beliefnet.com
^ [‘’’ Journey to Islam - Diary of a German Diplomat’’’ by Murad Hoffman]
^ Muslim Anelka to quit England Sport | This is London
^ Keller, Nu Ha Mim. Becoming Muslim.
^ "Bongo's 40 years of ruling Gabon" BBC News, 28 November 2007. Accessed on 8 February 2008.
^ Ethnicity, Cultural Discontinuity and Power Brokers in Northern Iraq: The Case of the Shabak .Amal Vinogradov. American Ethnologist, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Feb., 1974), pp. 207–218
^ Peter Murphy
^ Ponke, a human rights hero, is dead
^ Christian and Muslim comics show believers that faith sometimes is best shared through laughter - especially when it's at themselves
^ “Allah Made Me Funny!” - A Popular Muslim-American Comedy. IslamOnline.net
^ ’’A Cold’’ By Marin Sorescu, Published 1978, p.16
^ [4]
^ Guenonian Esoterism and Christian Mystery, By Jean Borella, G. John Champoux, back cover.
^ The Shoe Bomber's World - TIME
^ Humphries, Patrick, Richard Thompson - The Biography, Schirmer, 1997. ISBN 0-02-864752-1
^ Guest CV - Dr. Robert (Farooq) D. Crane, Islam Online
^ Robin Padilla opens school for Muslim kids
^ Origin and Enduring Impact of the 'Garaudy Affair'
^ History of the London Central Mosque and the Islamic Cultural Centre 1910–1980, A. L. Tibawi, Die Welt des Islams, New Ser., Bd. 21, Nr. 1/4 (1981), pp. 193–208
^ Slatin, Rudolf Karl, Baron von. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 July 2007.
^ Vote Rustie Lee
^ Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood Dawah Theology Islam
^ The Niqabi Paralegal: Ryan Anderson convicted
^ Soldier Guilty Of Al Qaeda Aid, Spc Anderson Convicted Of Trying To Give Terrorists Info - CBS News
^ MyFox Colorado Being Muslim in The Big Leagues
^ Religion and Nation: Iranian Local and Transnational Networks in Britain By Kathryn Spellman, pg. 145
^ Khaled Abou Toameh. "Hamas forced professor to convert." Jerusalem Post. 5 August 2007.
^ Putting a good glossy on the Muslim lifestyle. Times
^ American Renaissance News: Post 9/11, Islam Flourishes Among Blacks
^ Boy 5 knows 5 languages, Scotland on Sunday, April 8, 1999
^ Boy 5 converts 1000, to Islam
^ Boy 5 converts 1000, to Islam Full Version, Youtube
^ "About me". Silma. Push-Button Publishing. 2007. http://www.blogger.com/profile/14309477462606091182. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
^ Islam in America, By Jane I. Smith, pg. 196
^ Kohn, Rachael. The Black imam of Brooklyn
^ Three killed while performing ritual
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^ Biographie
^ NBA.com: Tariq Abdul-Wahad Bio
^ Pagones v. Maddox et al.
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^ A history of the crusades, By Steven Runciman, pg. 397
^ Interview at Bayweekly "Q: Am I right that you became a Moslem in the mid-1960s? Answer: I think it was '65 or '66."
^ Feature Interview: Tim Winter (aka Abdul Hakim Murad) :: Sunday Nights
^ ”Top Brother”, Emel: The Muslim Lifestyle Magazine, January/February 2005, Issue 9
^ [Rome's Envoy to Saudi Arabia Converts to Islam by Luke Baker, CNN, 26 November 2001]
^ Vinnie Paz
^ William Henry ('Sheikh Abdullah') Quilliam, 1856-
^ Brigitte terrorism trial nears ABC News
^ How Did You Accept Islam? by Yahiya Emerick
^ Jamaat al-Muslimeen on Trial in Trinidad and Tobago
^ "Yvonne Ridley: From captive to convert", By Hannah Bayman, BBC News (online), 21 September, 2004
^ BBC Inside Out - Yvonne Ridley
^ U.S. Muslim Clerics Seek a Modern Middle Ground - New York Times
^ New Islamic Directions
^ The Genoese in Galata: 1453–1682, Louis Mitler, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 10, No. (Feb., 1979), pp. 71–91.
^ E12, I. 52 (Joseph Horovitz, Muhammeds Himmelfahrt, Der Islam 9 (1919); Ibn Hajar Asqalni, Isaba fi Tamyiizi al-Sahaba, II. 312-3
^ Routledge History of Philosophy By Stuart Shanker, John Marenbon, George Henry Radcliffe Parkinson, pg. 76
^ Jewish Encyclopedia
^ Medieval Cultures in Contact, By Richard Gyug, pg. 123
^ JewishEncyclopedia.com - QUERIDO, JACOB
^ http://www.jews-for-allah.org/Jewish-Converts-to-Islam/Jemima-Goldsmith.htm
^ Leila Mourad, Egyptian Film Actress, 77 - New York Times
^ Biography of Muhammad Asad
^ Encyclopedia Britannica, "Rashid ad-Din", 2007
^ http://www.jews-for-allah.org/Jewish-Converts-to-Islam/Suleyman-Ahmad.htm
^ "TAPS" (PDF). The Kablegram. Staunton Military Academy Foundation. July 2006. http://www.sma-alumni.org/kg0706b.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-06.
^ In the Court of Ya'qub Ibn Killis: A Fragment from the Cairo Genizah , Mark R. Cohen, Sasson Somekh ‘’The Jewish Quarterly Review’’, New Ser., Vol. 80, No. 3/4 (Jan. - Apr., 1990), pp. 283–314
^ Kennedy, Hugh (2004). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. Longman. pp. 137, 143.
^ Mahmud Ghazan. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2 July 2007.
^ Limbert, J. W. (2004). Shiraz in the age of Hafez: the glory of a medieval Persian city. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p.87
^ A Sketch of the History of Hindustan from the First Muslim Conquest to the Fall of the Mughol Empire by H. G. Keene
^ The Chaghadaids and Islam: the conversion of Tarmashirin Khan (1331-34). - Journal, Magazine, Article, Periodical
^ Peace Tv
^ The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Languages & Literature, edited by Prof. Dato' Dr Asmah Haji Omar (2004) ISBN 981-3018-52-6
^ BANGLAPEDIA: Sumita Devi
^ Concise Encyclopaedia Of World History, By Carlos Ramirez-Faria, pg. 528
^ The history of India, By John McLeod, pg.36
^ Islam Online
^ The Judgment Against Imperialism, Fascism and Racism Against Caliphate and Islam, By Khondakar Golam Mowla, pg. 183
^ Parmu, R.K (1969), A history of Muslim rule in Kashmir, 1320–1819, People's Pub. House, ISBN ASIN: B0006C25AK
^ Rediff On The NeT: Varsha Bhosle on Kamala Das's conversion to Islam
^ A Western Journalist on India, By Francois Gautier, pg. 131
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^ India Divided, By Rajendra Prasad, pg. 63.
^ A History of Hindi Literature, By F. E. Keay, pg. 36
^ Srinivasan, Gopal (November 2002). "Composer Extraordinaire: The Complete Biography of A.R. Rahman". Retrieved on 15 February 2007
^ A convert who wanted to spread the faith The Globe and Mail - June 7, 2006
^ Mawlānā ʻUbayd Allāh Sindhī : ʻālāt-i zandagī, taʻlīmāt awr siyāsī afkār by Muḥammad Sarwar. Publisher: Lahore, 1976
^ Devin De Weese, Devin A, ( DeWeese. "Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde", Penn State Press, 1 Sep 1994, ISBN 0-271-01073-8 pg.3
^ David Myatt: From Neo-Nazi to Muslim
^ The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful, pg. 226
^ Vásáry, p.71
^ Learning to Love Africa, By Monique Maddy, pg. 156
^ Wars of imperial conquest in Africa, 1830-1914, By Bruce Vandervort, pg. 128
^ Asian Mythologies, By Yves Bonnefoy, Wendy Doniger, Gerald Honigsblum, pg. 337
^ Medieval Russia, 980-1584: 980-1584, By Janet Martin, by 171
^ Society and Culture in the Early Modern Middle East By Andrew J. Newman, University of Edinburgh, pg. 30
^ The Fall of the Idigo Jackal, By McComas Taylor, pg. 3
^ Islam's Contribution to Science, By Husain Muzzafar, S. Muzaffar Husain, pg. 31
^ Iran. - By Yahya Armajani, pg. 67
^ Encyclopedic Survey of Islamic Culture. By Mohamed Taher, pg. 84
^ The Complete Biography of A.R.Rahman - The A.R.Rahman Page
^ * Fisac, Taciana (2003). "Social anomie and political discourse in contemporary China". in Fernández-Stembridge, Leila. China Today: Economic Reforms, Social Cohesion, and Collective Identities. United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. 164. ISBN 0415312671.
^ The Radical Middle Way - Hasan Le Gai Eaton
^ Daily Times article reposted at his site
^ Profile at a page for converts
^ Struggling to Surrender, Some Impressions of an American Convert to Islam by Dr. Jeffrey Lang, [9]
^ Martin Lings, a Sufi Writer on Islamic Ideas, Dies at 96 - New York Times
^ You're Gonna Serve Somebody
^ Ideology and National Identity in Post-Communist Foreign Policies By Rick Fawn, pg. 147
^ Sufi Review (Pir Publications, Spring 1997), p.5-8
^ lepetitjournal.com - PORTRAIT – De Régis Fayette-Mikano à Abd Al Malik
^ The religion of Mumia Abu-Jamal, convicted murderer
^ Mumia Abu-Jamal case in court today
^ B.G. Knocc Out & Dresta
^ The Associated Press. (2003). "Motive a mystery in grenade attack" CNN.com. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
^ Chronicle, New York Times, 3 April 1990
^ Charles Smith - Telegraph
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^ [Archive for the Psychology of Religion By Jacob A Belzen, Nils G Holm, p.51]
^ Mr. Khaled Edward Blair
^ Last Statement from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved 22 August 2005.
^ Die Nigger Die: A Political Autobiography by H. Rap Brown (Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin)
^ Saudi Aramco World : The World of Islam: Its Arts
^ FourCorners Opinion: Amir Butler
^ "Bodybuilding stuntman who turned to Islam". BBC News. 2002-09-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2230630.stm. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
^ Sydney bomb plot link to race riots, murderer
^ Sydney bomb plotter charged: World: News: News24
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^ http://www.ajma.org/Bin/Bin.htm
^ Chillin' with Cube | Guardian Unlimited Film
^ BBC NEWS World | Africa | Profile: French mercenary Bob Denard
^ DNA Evidence Frees a Man Imprisoned for Half His Life - New York Times
^ Isabelle Eberhardt in brief Literary Review | Find Articles at BNET.com
^ Dr S. M. Abdullah (Khulusi 1963, pp. 234–235).
^ Everlastworld - Everlast biography
^ Alys Faiz passes away
^ Faiz Ahmed Faiz
^ "Five Draw Long Sentences for Terrorism Scheme". The New York Times (Associated Press). 1987-12-31. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE5D71F3CF932A05751C1A961948260. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
^ Robert W. Dart, The Future is Here Today: Street Gang Trends, 1992
^ RFI Musique - Akhénaton
^ French Allege Detained German Is Top Al Qaeda Leader
^ Docteur Philippe Grenier
^ (Dz Lit) Robert Bichet
^ Gigi Gryce Biography
^ HickokSports.com - Biography - Walt Hazzard
^ Ian Munro and Penny Debelle,Bring Hicks home, The Age, Fairfax, 2 December 2006
^ ’’The Man Who Thumped the Reds’’, The Straits Times on 1 Dec 1984.
^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_20010515/ai_n13910333
^ PBS.org - Perspecives: American Muslim Issues
^ The sound of freedom The Guardian | Guardian Unlimited
^ a b Profiling the Suspects: Converts to Islam
^ The Preaching of Islam, By Thomas Walker Arnold, pg. 297
^ New Sunday Times, Malaysia. "Tiara's true to her roles" (18 September 2005)
^ allmusic ((( Ahmad Jamal > Biography )))
^ Vrijman, L.C. Kaapvaart en zeeroverij / L.C. Vrijman. - Amsterdam, [1938]
^ PRO BASKETBALL; A Diet of Discipline - New York Times
^ Les Amis du Cheikh Ahmed al-Alawi - Content
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^ A man’s domain or a woman’s realm? Articles | The Umbrella project
^ Qantara.de - The Muslim Hip Hop Scene in the USA - Rapping with Allah's Blessing
^ Yvette Labrousse, Begum Om Habibeh Elles et eux dans les années 50
^ Yusef Lateef - About Yusef
^ Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 edited by Philip Rees, (1991, ISBN 0-13-089301-3)
^ The Beast Reawakens by Martin A. Lee (1997, ISBN 0-316-51959-6)
^ Behind the Egyptian Sphinx: Nasser's strange bedfellows; prelude to World War III? by Irving Sedar and Harold J. Greenberg (Philadelphia, Chilton Co., 1960)
^ Integral in Iran: In Qom: Meeting with Conservative Clergy
^ U.S. Will Pay $2 Million to Lawyer Wrongly Jailed
^ MC Ren
^ GIANT STEP Artist - Ali Shaheed Muhammad
^ Salaam Knowledge
^ CNN.com - Muhammad a Gulf War vet, Islam convert - Jan. 26, 2004
^ Convicted sniper John Allen Muhammad gets six life terms in Maryland on CourtTV.com
^ The Politics of Anthony Mundine
^ Mosque works to better the community Oakland Tribune | Find Articles at BNET.com
^ Al Jazeera English - Archive - Plea To Free German Captive
^ The Case of the Dirty Bomber - TIME
^ Ohio man accused of joining al-Qaida, planning bomb plots in Europe
^ U.S. Man Accused of Plot to Bomb Resorts
^ "Islamic Britain lures top people". The Sunday Times. 2004-02-22. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1026534.ece.
^ Hip-Hop's Next Wave - TIME
^ SJ Magazine Articles your South Jersey source
^ Jack Roche: The naive militant
^ BBC NEWS Americas | 'Jackal' book praises Bin Laden
^ Conversion: Islam, the growing religion
^ conversion article by a Journalist, steven schwartz
^ Ill. man arrested for alleged bomb plot - Security - MSNBC.com
^ Sahib Shihab, MP3 Music Download at eMusic
^ Divine Styler: Spiral Walls Containing Autumns of Light Colorlines Magazine (March , 2007)
^ One Be Lo MP3 Downloads - One Be Lo Music Downloads - One Be Lo Music Videos - One Be Lo Pictures - MP3.com
^ Tvnz.co.nz
^ BBC News SPORT | Echoes of Ali in Tyson furore
^ Ebony interview with Mike Tyson - boxer - Interview Ebony | Find Articles at BNET.com
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^ Shock Reverberates Among Acquaintances of the Young Suspects - New York Times
^ Pinverbod voor terrorist, the Dutch foreign minister bans convicted Hofstadgroep terrorists from any financial transactions, by Rien Meijer and Bart Mos, De Telegraaf, 20 April 2006 (Dutch)
^ [13]
^ MEMRI: Special Dispatch Series - No. 1112
^ Religion & Ethics NewsWeekly . PROFILE . Muslim Converts . October 8, 2004 PBS
^ Islam Online
^ UPS (17 May 1975) "Militant is Hanged in Trinidad After Long Fight for Clemency." New York Times.

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Categories: Converts to Islam | Islam-related lists | Lists of Muslims | Conversion to Islam | Lists of religious converts